Catherine II ‘the Great’, Empress of Russia (1729-1796), is referred to as an ‘enlightened monarch’. She shaped the Russian destiny to a greater extent than almost anyone before or since, with the exception of Peter the Great.
A German Princess, born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, she married Peter III of Russia and changed her name to ‘Catherine’ when she accepted the Russian Orthodox faith. The marriage was unsuccessful due to Peter Ill’s mental immaturity. Soon Catherine became popular with several powerful political groups. She corresponded with many of the great minds of her era, including Voltaire and Diderot. Peter’s eccentricities and policies alienated many. He was made to abdicate and was killed by Alexei Orlov in 1762. Catherine became the Empress of Russia.
In 1785 Catherine issued a charter that freed the nobles from state service and taxes, made noble status hereditary, and gave the nobles full control over their serfs and lands. Catherine proceeded to ‘westernize’ Russia. After a peasant revolt in 1773 led by Yemelyan Pugachev, Catherine instituted several drastic reforms. First, she encouraged the modernization of agriculture and industry. Second, she supported foreign investment in economically underdeveloped areas. Third, Catherine encouraged education for the nobles and middle class. She gave equal rights to Muslims in Russia, including the right to build mosques.
Catherine made Russia the dominant power in the Middle East after her first Russo-Turkish War against the Ottoman Empire (1768- 1774). She annexed the Crimea in 1783. All told, she added some 518,000 square km to Russian territory. She also encouraged the colonization of Alaska and of conquered areas.
Catherine subscribed to the Enlightenment and considered herself a ‘philosopher on the throne.’ She became known as a patron of the arts, literature and education. The Hermitage Museum was begun as Catherine’s personal collection. She founded the famous Smolny Institute for noble young ladies. Gavrila Derzhavin and other writers of her epoch, supported by Catherine, laid the foundation for the great writers of the nineteenth century. However, her reign was also marked by censorship. When Radishchev published his Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow in 1790, Catherine had him exiled to Siberia. Catherine died on November 5, 1796, and was buried at the St. Peter and St. Paul Fortress in Saint Petersburg.
Translate the following sentences into English.
1. ΠΠΊΠ°ΡΠ΅ΡΠΈΠ½Π° II ΠΠ΅Π»ΠΈΠΊΠ°Ρ Π±ΡΠ»Π° Π½Π΅ΠΌΠ΅ΡΠΊΠΎΠΉ ΠΏΡΠΈΠ½ΡΠ΅ΡΡΠΎΠΉ, ΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΡΠ°Ρ Π²ΡΡΠ»Π° Π·Π°ΠΌΡΠΆ Π·Π° ΠΠ΅ΡΡΠ° III, ΠΏΡΠΈΠ½ΡΠ»Π° ΠΏΡΠ°Π²ΠΎΡΠ»Π°Π²Π½ΡΡ Π²Π΅ΡΡ ΠΈ ΡΡΠ°Π»Π° ΠΈΠΌΠΏΠ΅ΡΠ°ΡΡΠΈΡΠ΅ΠΉ.
2. ΠΠ½Π° ΠΏΠ΅ΡΠ΅ΠΏΠΈΡΡΠ²Π°Π»Π°ΡΡ ΡΠΎ ΠΌΠ½ΠΎΠ³ΠΈΠΌΠΈ Π²Π΅Π»ΠΈΠΊΠΈΠΌΠΈ ΡΠΌΠ°ΠΌΠΈ ΡΠ²ΠΎΠ΅ΠΉ ΡΠΏΠΎΡ ΠΈ ΠΈ Π±ΡΠ»Π° ΡΡΠΎΡΠΎΠ½Π½ΠΈΡΠ΅ΠΉ ΠΏΡΠΎΡΠ²Π΅ΡΠ΅Π½ΠΈΡ.
3. ΠΠ½Π° ΠΈΠ·Π΄Π°Π»Π° ΡΠΊΠ°Π·, ΠΏΠΎ ΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΡΠΎΠΌΡ Π΄Π²ΠΎΡΡΠ½ΡΡΠ²ΠΎ ΠΎΡΠ²ΠΎΠ±ΠΎΠΆΠ΄Π°Π»ΠΎΡΡ ΠΎΡ Π³ΠΎΡΡΠ΄Π°ΡΡΡΠ²Π΅Π½Π½ΠΎΠΉ ΡΠ»ΡΠΆΠ±Ρ ΠΈ Π½Π°Π»ΠΎΠ³ΠΎΠ², ΡΠ΄Π΅Π»Π°Π»Π° Π΄Π²ΠΎΡΡΠ½ΡΠΊΠΎΠ΅ Π·Π²Π°Π½ΠΈΠ΅ Π½Π°ΡΠ»Π΅Π΄ΡΡΠ²Π΅Π½Π½ΡΠΌ ΠΈ Π΄Π°Π»Π° Π΄Π²ΠΎΡΡΠ½ΡΡΠ²Ρ ΠΏΠΎΠ»Π½ΡΡ Π²Π»Π°ΡΡΡ Π½Π°Π΄ ΠΊΡΠ΅ΠΏΠΎΡΡΠ½ΡΠΌΠΈ ΠΊΡΠ΅ΡΡΡΡΠ½Π°ΠΌΠΈ ΠΈ Π·Π΅ΠΌΠ»Π΅ΠΉ.
4. ΠΠ½Π° ΠΏΡΠΎΠ΄ΠΎΠ»ΠΆΠ°Π»Π° “Π²Π΅ΡΡΠ΅ΡΠ½ΠΈΠ·Π°ΡΠΈΡ” Π ΠΎΡΡΠΈΠΈ ΠΈ ΠΏΡΠΎΠ²Π΅Π»Π° ΠΊΠΎΡΠ΅Π½Π½ΡΠ΅ ΡΠ΅ΡΠΎΡΠΌΡ, Π½Π°ΠΏΡΠ°Π²Π»Π΅Π½Π½ΡΠ΅ Π½Π° ΠΌΠΎΠ΄Π΅ΡΠ½ΠΈΠ·Π°ΡΠΈΡ ΡΠΊΠΎΠ½ΠΎΠΌΠΈΠΊΠΈ, Π° ΡΠ°ΠΊΠΆΠ΅ ΠΏΠΎΠ΄Π΄Π΅ΡΠΆΠΈΠ²Π°Π»Π° ΠΈΠ½ΠΎΡΡΡΠ°Π½Π½ΡΠ΅ ΠΊΠ°ΠΏΠΈΡΠ°Π»ΠΎΠ²Π»ΠΎΠΆΠ΅Π½ΠΈΡ Π² ΡΠ»Π°Π±ΠΎΡΠ°Π·Π²ΠΈΡΡΠ΅ ΡΠ°ΠΉΠΎΠ½Ρ Π ΠΎΡΡΠΈΠΈ.
5. ΠΠ½Π° ΡΠ°ΠΊΠΆΠ΅ ΠΏΠΎΠΎΡΡΡΠ»Π° ΠΎΠ±ΡΠ°Π·ΠΎΠ²Π°Π½ΠΈΠ΅ Π΄Π²ΠΎΡΡΠ½ΡΡΠ²Π° ΠΈ ΡΡΠ΅Π΄Π½Π΅Π³ΠΎ ΠΊΠ»Π°ΡΡΠ° ΠΈ Π΄Π°Π»Π° ΠΌΡΡΡΠ»ΡΠΌΠ°Π½Π°ΠΌ Π² Π ΠΎΡΡΠΈΠΈ ΡΠ°Π²Π½ΡΠ΅ ΠΏΡΠ°Π²Π°.
6. ΠΠΊΠ°ΡΠ΅ΡΠΈΠ½Π° ΡΠ΄Π΅Π»Π°Π»Π° Π ΠΎΡΡΠΈΡ Π²Π΅Π΄ΡΡΠ΅ΠΉ Π΄Π΅ΡΠΆΠ°Π²ΠΎΠΉ Π½Π° ΠΠ»ΠΈΠΆΠ½Π΅ΠΌ ΠΠΎΡΡΠΎΠΊΠ΅, Π°Π½Π½Π΅ΠΊΡΠΈΡΠΎΠ²Π°Π»Π° ΠΡΡΠΌ ΠΈ ΠΏΠΎΠΎΡΡΡΠ»Π° ΠΊΠΎΠ»ΠΎΠ½ΠΈΠ·Π°ΡΠΈΡ ΠΠ»ΡΡΠΊΠΈ ΠΈ Π·Π°Π²ΠΎΠ΅Π²Π°Π½Π½ΡΡ ΡΠ΅ΡΡΠΈΡΠΎΡΠΈΠΉ.
7. ΠΠ½Π° ΡΡΠ°Π»Π° ΠΏΠΎΠΊΡΠΎΠ²ΠΈΡΠ΅Π»ΡΠ½ΠΈΡΠ΅ΠΉ ΠΈΡΠΊΡΡΡΡΠ², ΠΎΡΠ½ΠΎΠ²Π°Π»Π° ΠΡΠΌΠΈΡΠ°ΠΆ ΠΈ Π‘ΠΌΠΎΠ»ΡΠ½ΡΠΉ ΠΈΠ½ΡΡΠΈΡΡΡ Π±Π»Π°Π³ΠΎΡΠΎΠ΄Π½ΡΡ Π΄Π΅Π²ΠΈΡ.
8. ΠΠ΅ ΠΏΡΠ°Π²Π»Π΅Π½ΠΈΠ΅ ΠΎΠ·Π½Π°ΠΌΠ΅Π½ΠΎΠ²Π°Π»ΠΎΡΡ ΡΠ°ΠΊΠΆΠ΅ ΡΠ΅Π½Π·ΡΡΠΎΠΉ, ΠΎΠ½Π° ΡΠΎΡΠ»Π°Π»Π° Π Π°Π΄ΠΈΡΠ΅Π²Π° Π² Π‘ΠΈΠ±ΠΈΡΡ.
1. Catherine II ‘the Great’ was a German Princess who married Peter III, accepted Orthodox faith and became the Empress of Russia.
2. She corresponded with many great minds of her era and subscribed to the Enlightenment.
3. She issued a charter that freed the nobles from state service and taxes, made noble status hereditary, and gave the nobles full control over their serfs and lands.
4. She proceeded to ‘westernize’ Russia and instituted drastic reforms which encouraged the modernization of economy and supported foreign investment in underdeveloped areas of Russia.
5. She also encouraged education for the nobles and the middle class and gave equal rights to Muslims in Russia.
6. Catherine made Russia the dominant power in the Middle East, annexed the Crimea and encouraged the colonization of Alaska and of the conquered areas.
7. She became the patron of arts, founded the Hermitage museum and the Smolny Institute for noble young ladies.
8. Her reign was also marked by censorship, she had Radishev exiled to Siberia.
ΠΠ· ΠΏΠΎΡΠΎΠ±ΠΈΡ “ΠΠΠ. ΠΠ½Π³Π»ΠΈΠΉΡΠΊΠΈΠΉ ΡΠ·ΡΠΊ. Π£ΡΡΠ½ΡΠ΅ ΡΠ΅ΠΌΡ” ΠΠ°Π½ΠΈΠ½Π° Π. Π. (2010, 272Ρ.) – Part two. Additional topics.