Peter I, or Peter the Great (1672-1725), was one of the most outstanding rulers and reformers in Russian history. He was at first a joint ruler with his weak and sickly half-brother, Ivan V, and his sister, Sophia. In 1696 he became a sole ruler. Peter I was Tsar of Russia and became Emperor in 1721. As a child, he loved military games and enjoyed carpentry, blacksmithing and printing. He was first married at the age of 17.
Peter I is famous for carrying out a policy of ‘westernization’ and drawing Russia further to the East that transformed Russia into a major European power. Having travelled much in Western Europe, Peter tried to carry western customs and habits to Russia. He introduced western technology and completely changed the Russian government, increasing the power of the monarch and reducing the power of the boyars and the church. He reorganized Russian army along Western lines.
He also transferred the capital to St. Petersburg, building the new capital to the pattern o/European cities.
In foreign policy, Peter dreamt of making Russia a maritime power. To get access to the Black Sea, the Caspian Sea, the Azov Sea and the Baltic, he waged wars with the Ottoman Empire (1695-1696), the Great Northern War with Sweden (1700-1721), and a war with Persia (1722-1723). He managed to get the shores of the Baltic and the Caspian Sea.
In his day, Peter I was regarded as a strong and brutal ruler. He faced much opposition to his reforms, but suppressed any and all rebellion against his power. The rebellion of streltsy, the old Russian army, took place in 1698 and was headed by his half-sister Sophia. The greatest civilian uprising of Peter’s reign, the Bulavin Rebellion (1707-1709) started as a Cossack war. Both rebellions aimed at overthrowing Peter and were followed by repressions.
Peter I played a great part in Russian history. After his death, Russia was much more secure and progressive than it had been before his reign.
Translate the following sentences into English.
1. Петр Великий был одним из выдающихся правителей и реформаторов в русской истории, который сначала правил совместно со своим сводным братом и сестрой Софьей, затем стал править самостоятельно, а позже стал императором России.
2. Петр I осуществлял политику “вестернизации”, пытался продвинуть Россию дальше на Восток и ввел западную технику.
3. Он превратил Россию в ведущую европейскую державу и попытался перенести европейские обычаи и образ жизни в Россию.
4. Петр I усилил власть монарха, ослабил власть бояр и церкви и реорганизовал русскую армию по западному образцу.
5. Он мечтал превратить Россию в морскую державу и вел войны с Оттоманской империей, Швецией и Персией.
6. Он столкнулся с сильной оппозицией своим реформам, но подавлял любые восстания против своей власти, и в свое время считался сильным и жестоким правителем.
7. За крупнейшим гражданским восстанием во время правления Петра последовали репрессии.
1. Peter the Great was one of the outstanding rulers and reformers in Russian history, who first was a joint ruler with his half-brother Ivan V and his sister Sophia, then became a sole ruler, and later Emperor of Russia.
2. Peter I carried out a policy of’ westernization’, tried to draw Russia further to the East and introduced western technology.
3. He transformed Russia into a major European power and tried to carry western customs and habits to Russia.
4. Peter I increased the power of the monarch, reduced the power of the boyars and the church and reorganized Russian army along the Western lines.
5. He dreamt of making Russia a maritime power and waged wars with the Ottoman empire, Sweden and Persia.
6. He faced much opposition to his reforms, but suppressed any and all rebellion against his power, and he was regarded in his day as a strong and brutal ruler.
7. The greatest civilian uprising of Peter’s reign was followed by repressions.
Из пособия “ЕГЭ. Английский язык. Устные темы” Занина Е. Л. (2010, 272с.) – Part two. Additional topics.