Peter I, or Peter the Great (1672-1725), was one of the most outstanding rulers and reformers in Russian history. He was at first a joint ruler with his weak and sickly half-brother, Ivan V, and his sister, Sophia. In 1696 he became a sole ruler. Peter I was Tsar of Russia and became Emperor in 1721. As a child, he loved military games and enjoyed carpentry, blacksmithing and printing. He was first married at the age of 17.
Peter I is famous for carrying out a policy of ‘westernization’ and drawing Russia further to the East that transformed Russia into a major European power. Having travelled much in Western Europe, Peter tried to carry western customs and habits to Russia. He introduced western technology and completely changed the Russian government, increasing the power of the monarch and reducing the power of the boyars and the church. He reorganized Russian army along Western lines.
He also transferred the capital to St. Petersburg, building the new capital to the pattern o/European cities.
In foreign policy, Peter dreamt of making Russia a maritime power. To get access to the Black Sea, the Caspian Sea, the Azov Sea and the Baltic, he waged wars with the Ottoman Empire (1695-1696), the Great Northern War with Sweden (1700-1721), and a war with Persia (1722-1723). He managed to get the shores of the Baltic and the Caspian Sea.
In his day, Peter I was regarded as a strong and brutal ruler. He faced much opposition to his reforms, but suppressed any and all rebellion against his power. The rebellion of streltsy, the old Russian army, took place in 1698 and was headed by his half-sister Sophia. The greatest civilian uprising of Peter’s reign, the Bulavin Rebellion (1707-1709) started as a Cossack war. Both rebellions aimed at overthrowing Peter and were followed by repressions.
Peter I played a great part in Russian history. After his death, Russia was much more secure and progressive than it had been before his reign.
Translate the following sentences into English.
1. ΠΠ΅ΡΡ ΠΠ΅Π»ΠΈΠΊΠΈΠΉ Π±ΡΠ» ΠΎΠ΄Π½ΠΈΠΌ ΠΈΠ· Π²ΡΠ΄Π°ΡΡΠΈΡ ΡΡ ΠΏΡΠ°Π²ΠΈΡΠ΅Π»Π΅ΠΉ ΠΈ ΡΠ΅ΡΠΎΡΠΌΠ°ΡΠΎΡΠΎΠ² Π² ΡΡΡΡΠΊΠΎΠΉ ΠΈΡΡΠΎΡΠΈΠΈ, ΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΡΡΠΉ ΡΠ½Π°ΡΠ°Π»Π° ΠΏΡΠ°Π²ΠΈΠ» ΡΠΎΠ²ΠΌΠ΅ΡΡΠ½ΠΎ ΡΠΎ ΡΠ²ΠΎΠΈΠΌ ΡΠ²ΠΎΠ΄Π½ΡΠΌ Π±ΡΠ°ΡΠΎΠΌ ΠΈ ΡΠ΅ΡΡΡΠΎΠΉ Π‘ΠΎΡΡΠ΅ΠΉ, Π·Π°ΡΠ΅ΠΌ ΡΡΠ°Π» ΠΏΡΠ°Π²ΠΈΡΡ ΡΠ°ΠΌΠΎΡΡΠΎΡΡΠ΅Π»ΡΠ½ΠΎ, Π° ΠΏΠΎΠ·ΠΆΠ΅ ΡΡΠ°Π» ΠΈΠΌΠΏΠ΅ΡΠ°ΡΠΎΡΠΎΠΌ Π ΠΎΡΡΠΈΠΈ.
2. ΠΠ΅ΡΡ I ΠΎΡΡΡΠ΅ΡΡΠ²Π»ΡΠ» ΠΏΠΎΠ»ΠΈΡΠΈΠΊΡ “Π²Π΅ΡΡΠ΅ΡΠ½ΠΈΠ·Π°ΡΠΈΠΈ”, ΠΏΡΡΠ°Π»ΡΡ ΠΏΡΠΎΠ΄Π²ΠΈΠ½ΡΡΡ Π ΠΎΡΡΠΈΡ Π΄Π°Π»ΡΡΠ΅ Π½Π° ΠΠΎΡΡΠΎΠΊ ΠΈ Π²Π²Π΅Π» Π·Π°ΠΏΠ°Π΄Π½ΡΡ ΡΠ΅Ρ Π½ΠΈΠΊΡ.
3. ΠΠ½ ΠΏΡΠ΅Π²ΡΠ°ΡΠΈΠ» Π ΠΎΡΡΠΈΡ Π² Π²Π΅Π΄ΡΡΡΡ Π΅Π²ΡΠΎΠΏΠ΅ΠΉΡΠΊΡΡ Π΄Π΅ΡΠΆΠ°Π²Ρ ΠΈ ΠΏΠΎΠΏΡΡΠ°Π»ΡΡ ΠΏΠ΅ΡΠ΅Π½Π΅ΡΡΠΈ Π΅Π²ΡΠΎΠΏΠ΅ΠΉΡΠΊΠΈΠ΅ ΠΎΠ±ΡΡΠ°ΠΈ ΠΈ ΠΎΠ±ΡΠ°Π· ΠΆΠΈΠ·Π½ΠΈ Π² Π ΠΎΡΡΠΈΡ.
4. ΠΠ΅ΡΡ I ΡΡΠΈΠ»ΠΈΠ» Π²Π»Π°ΡΡΡ ΠΌΠΎΠ½Π°ΡΡ Π°, ΠΎΡΠ»Π°Π±ΠΈΠ» Π²Π»Π°ΡΡΡ Π±ΠΎΡΡ ΠΈ ΡΠ΅ΡΠΊΠ²ΠΈ ΠΈ ΡΠ΅ΠΎΡΠ³Π°Π½ΠΈΠ·ΠΎΠ²Π°Π» ΡΡΡΡΠΊΡΡ Π°ΡΠΌΠΈΡ ΠΏΠΎ Π·Π°ΠΏΠ°Π΄Π½ΠΎΠΌΡ ΠΎΠ±ΡΠ°Π·ΡΡ.
5. ΠΠ½ ΠΌΠ΅ΡΡΠ°Π» ΠΏΡΠ΅Π²ΡΠ°ΡΠΈΡΡ Π ΠΎΡΡΠΈΡ Π² ΠΌΠΎΡΡΠΊΡΡ Π΄Π΅ΡΠΆΠ°Π²Ρ ΠΈ Π²Π΅Π» Π²ΠΎΠΉΠ½Ρ Ρ ΠΡΡΠΎΠΌΠ°Π½ΡΠΊΠΎΠΉ ΠΈΠΌΠΏΠ΅ΡΠΈΠ΅ΠΉ, Π¨Π²Π΅ΡΠΈΠ΅ΠΉ ΠΈ ΠΠ΅ΡΡΠΈΠ΅ΠΉ.
6. ΠΠ½ ΡΡΠΎΠ»ΠΊΠ½ΡΠ»ΡΡ Ρ ΡΠΈΠ»ΡΠ½ΠΎΠΉ ΠΎΠΏΠΏΠΎΠ·ΠΈΡΠΈΠ΅ΠΉ ΡΠ²ΠΎΠΈΠΌ ΡΠ΅ΡΠΎΡΠΌΠ°ΠΌ, Π½ΠΎ ΠΏΠΎΠ΄Π°Π²Π»ΡΠ» Π»ΡΠ±ΡΠ΅ Π²ΠΎΡΡΡΠ°Π½ΠΈΡ ΠΏΡΠΎΡΠΈΠ² ΡΠ²ΠΎΠ΅ΠΉ Π²Π»Π°ΡΡΠΈ, ΠΈ Π² ΡΠ²ΠΎΠ΅ Π²ΡΠ΅ΠΌΡ ΡΡΠΈΡΠ°Π»ΡΡ ΡΠΈΠ»ΡΠ½ΡΠΌ ΠΈ ΠΆΠ΅ΡΡΠΎΠΊΠΈΠΌ ΠΏΡΠ°Π²ΠΈΡΠ΅Π»Π΅ΠΌ.
7. ΠΠ° ΠΊΡΡΠΏΠ½Π΅ΠΉΡΠΈΠΌ Π³ΡΠ°ΠΆΠ΄Π°Π½ΡΠΊΠΈΠΌ Π²ΠΎΡΡΡΠ°Π½ΠΈΠ΅ΠΌ Π²ΠΎ Π²ΡΠ΅ΠΌΡ ΠΏΡΠ°Π²Π»Π΅Π½ΠΈΡ ΠΠ΅ΡΡΠ° ΠΏΠΎΡΠ»Π΅Π΄ΠΎΠ²Π°Π»ΠΈ ΡΠ΅ΠΏΡΠ΅ΡΡΠΈΠΈ.
1. Peter the Great was one of the outstanding rulers and reformers in Russian history, who first was a joint ruler with his half-brother Ivan V and his sister Sophia, then became a sole ruler, and later Emperor of Russia.
2. Peter I carried out a policy of’ westernization’, tried to draw Russia further to the East and introduced western technology.
3. He transformed Russia into a major European power and tried to carry western customs and habits to Russia.
4. Peter I increased the power of the monarch, reduced the power of the boyars and the church and reorganized Russian army along the Western lines.
5. He dreamt of making Russia a maritime power and waged wars with the Ottoman empire, Sweden and Persia.
6. He faced much opposition to his reforms, but suppressed any and all rebellion against his power, and he was regarded in his day as a strong and brutal ruler.
7. The greatest civilian uprising of Peter’s reign was followed by repressions.
ΠΠ· ΠΏΠΎΡΠΎΠ±ΠΈΡ “ΠΠΠ. ΠΠ½Π³Π»ΠΈΠΉΡΠΊΠΈΠΉ ΡΠ·ΡΠΊ. Π£ΡΡΠ½ΡΠ΅ ΡΠ΅ΠΌΡ” ΠΠ°Π½ΠΈΠ½Π° Π. Π. (2010, 272Ρ.) – Part two. Additional topics.