Russian education system was originally inherited from the Soviet Union without any significant changes. In the Soviet Union, education of all levels was free for anybody who could pass entrance exams; students were provided with small scholarships and free housing. It has produced nearly 100 % literacy. In the Soviet Union institutions were funded entirely from the federal and regional budgets. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, institutions found themselves unable to provide adequate teachers’ salaries, students9 scholarships, and to maintain their facilities. Many state institutions started to open commercial positions. The number of those positions has been growing steadily since then. Many private higher education institutions have emerged, too. In 2004, 35 % of all first-year students were paying for their own education in state institutions and 20 % were enrolled in private universities.
Education in Russia may be arranged into three major groups: secondary education, higher education, and postgraduate education. Secondary education in Russia usually takes eleven years to complete. After graduation from the 9th grade, which is compulsory, a pupil obtains a Certificate of Incomplete Secondary Education. After that a pupil has can either continue education for two more years at the secondary school, or to go to a Community College.
The latter variant usually takes three to four years to complete and provides a pupil with qualification sufficient for most blue-collar jobs.
After obtaining a Certificate of Complete Secondary Education a student can enter a University or a Community College. Nowadays, the country has 685 governmental higher education institutions and 619 nongovernmental higher education establishments (1,162 of which are state-accredited). In 2003-2004, the total number of students of higher education institutions was 5,947,500.
There are three different degrees that are conferred by Russian universities: Bachelor’s Degree (4 years), Specialist’s Degree (5-6 years), and Master’s Degree (6 years). Bachelor’s degrees were introduced relatively recently and are not offered by many six-year institutions. After obtaining a Specialist’s or Master’s Degree, a student may pursue postgraduate education. The first level of postgraduate education is aspirantura that usually results in the Candidate of Sciences Degree, roughly equivalent to the Ph. D. in the United States. The second stage would result in the Doctor’s Degree. A Candidate of Sciences Degree may be accompanied by honourary degree of assistant professor and a Doctor’s Degree may be accompanied by honourary degree of professor.
Translate the following sentences into English.
1. ΠΠ±ΡΠ°Π·ΠΎΠ²Π°ΡΠ΅Π»ΡΠ½Π°Ρ ΡΠΈΡΡΠ΅ΠΌΠ° Π ΠΎΡΡΠΈΠΈ Π±ΡΠ»Π° ΡΠ½Π°ΡΠ»Π΅Π΄ΠΎΠ²Π°Π½Π° ΠΎΡ Π‘ΠΎΠ²Π΅ΡΡΠΊΠΎΠ³ΠΎ Π‘ΠΎΡΠ·Π°. ΠΠΏΡΠ΅Π΄Π΅Π»Π΅Π½Π½ΠΎΠ΅ Π²ΡΠ΅ΠΌΡ ΠΎΠ±ΡΠ°Π·ΠΎΠ²Π°Π½ΠΈΠ΅ Π±ΡΠ»ΠΎ Π±Π΅ΡΠΏΠ»Π°ΡΠ½ΡΠΌ Π΄Π»Ρ Π»ΡΠ±ΠΎΠ³ΠΎ, ΠΊΡΠΎ ΠΏΡΠΎΡ ΠΎΠ΄ΠΈΠ» Π²ΡΡΡΠΏΠΈΡΠ΅Π»ΡΠ½ΡΠ΅ ΡΠΊΠ·Π°ΠΌΠ΅Π½Ρ, ΡΡΡΠ΄Π΅Π½ΡΡ ΠΎΠ±Π΅ΡΠΏΠ΅ΡΠΈΠ²Π°Π»ΠΈΡΡ Π½Π΅Π±ΠΎΠ»ΡΡΠΈΠΌΠΈ ΡΡΠΈΠΏΠ΅Π½Π΄ΠΈΡΠΌΠΈ ΠΈ Π±Π΅ΡΠΏΠ»Π°ΡΠ½ΡΠΌ ΠΆΠΈΠ»ΡΠ΅ΠΌ.
2. Π Π‘ΠΎΠ²Π΅ΡΡΠΊΠΎΠΌ Π‘ΠΎΡΠ·Π΅ Π²ΡΠ·Ρ ΡΠΈΠ½Π°Π½ΡΠΈΡΠΎΠ²Π°Π»ΠΈΡΡ ΠΏΠΎΠ»Π½ΠΎΡΡΡΡ ΠΈΠ· ΡΠ΅Π΄Π΅ΡΠ°Π»ΡΠ½ΠΎΠ³ΠΎ ΠΈ ΡΠ΅Π³ΠΈΠΎΠ½Π°Π»ΡΠ½ΠΎΠ³ΠΎ Π±ΡΠ΄ΠΆΠ΅ΡΠΎΠ², Π² ΠΏΠΎΡΡΡΠΎΠ²Π΅ΡΡΠΊΠΎΠΉ Π ΠΎΡΡΠΈΠΈ ΠΌΠ½ΠΎΠ³ΠΈΠ΅ ΠΈΠ½ΡΡΠΈΡΡΡΡ Π½Π΅ ΡΠΌΠΎΠ³Π»ΠΈ ΠΎΠ±Π΅ΡΠΏΠ΅ΡΠΈΠ²Π°ΡΡ Π΄ΠΎΡΡΠΎΠΉΠ½ΡΠ΅ Π·Π°ΡΠΏΠ»Π°ΡΡ ΠΏΡΠ΅ΠΏΠΎΠ΄Π°Π²Π°ΡΠ΅Π»ΡΠΌ ΠΈ ΡΡΠΈΠΏΠ΅Π½Π΄ΠΈΠΈ ΡΡΡΠ΄Π΅Π½ΡΠ°ΠΌ ΠΈ ΡΡΠ°Π»ΠΈ ΠΏΡΠ΅Π΄Π»Π°Π³Π°ΡΡ (ΠΎΡΠΊΡΡΠ²Π°ΡΡ) ΠΏΠ»Π°ΡΠ½ΡΠ΅ ΠΌΠ΅ΡΡΠ°.
3. ΠΠΎΡΠ²ΠΈΠ»ΠΎΡΡ ΠΌΠ½ΠΎΠ³ΠΎ ΡΠ°ΡΡΠ½ΡΡ Π²ΡΠ·ΠΎΠ², ΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΡΡΠ΅ Π±ΡΠ»ΠΈ Π°ΠΊΠΊΡΠ΅Π΄ΠΈΡΠΎΠ²Π°Π½Ρ Π³ΠΎΡΡΠ΄Π°ΡΡΡΠ²ΠΎΠΌ, Π² Π½ΠΈΡ ΡΡΠΈΡΡΡ ΠΎΠΊΠΎΠ»ΠΎ 20 % ΡΡΡΠ΄Π΅Π½ΡΠΎΠ².
4. Π‘ΡΠ΅Π΄Π½Π΅Π΅ ΠΎΠ±ΡΠ°Π·ΠΎΠ²Π°Π½ΠΈΠ΅ Π² Π ΠΎΡΡΠΈΠΈ ΠΎΠ±ΡΠ·Π°ΡΠ΅Π»ΡΠ½ΠΎ Π΄ΠΎ 9 ΠΊΠ»Π°ΡΡΠ° Π²ΠΊΠ»ΡΡΠΈΡΠ΅Π»ΡΠ½ΠΎ, ΠΏΠΎΡΠ»Π΅ ΡΠ΅Π³ΠΎ ΡΡΠ΅Π½ΠΈΠΊ ΠΏΠΎΠ»ΡΡΠ°Π΅Ρ ΡΠ΅ΡΡΠΈΡΠΈΠΊΠ°Ρ ΠΎ Π½Π΅ΠΏΠΎΠ»Π½ΠΎΠΌ ΡΡΠ΅Π΄Π½Π΅ΠΌ ΠΎΠ±ΡΠ°Π·ΠΎΠ²Π°Π½ΠΈΠΈ.
5. Π£Π½ΠΈΠ²Π΅ΡΡΠΈΡΠ΅ΡΡ Π ΠΎΡΡΠΈΠΈ ΠΏΡΠΈΡΠ²Π°ΠΈΠ²Π°ΡΡ ΡΠ»Π΅Π΄ΡΡΡΠΈΠ΅ ΡΡΠ΅ΠΏΠ΅Π½ΠΈ: ΡΡΠ΅ΠΏΠ΅Π½Ρ Π±Π°ΠΊΠ°Π»Π°Π²ΡΠ°, ΡΡΠ΅ΠΏΠ΅Π½Ρ ΠΊΠ°Π½Π΄ΠΈΠ΄Π°ΡΠ° ΠΈ ΡΡΠ΅ΠΏΠ΅Π½Ρ ΠΌΠ°Π³ΠΈΡΡΡΠ°.
6. ΠΡΠΏΡΡΠΊΠ½ΠΈΠΊΠΈ ΠΌΠΎΠ³ΡΡ ΠΏΡΠΎΠ΄ΠΎΠ»ΠΆΠΈΡΡ ΠΎΠ±ΡΠ°Π·ΠΎΠ²Π°Π½ΠΈΠ΅ ΠΏΠΎΡΠ»Π΅ ΠΎΠΊΠΎΠ½ΡΠ°Π½ΠΈΡ Π²ΡΠ·Π°, Π² ΡΠ΅Π·ΡΠ»ΡΡΠ°ΡΠ΅ ΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΡΠΎΠ³ΠΎ ΠΎΠ½ΠΈ ΠΌΠΎΠ³ΡΡ ΠΏΠΎΠ»ΡΡΠΈΡΡ ΡΡΠ΅ΠΏΠ΅Π½Ρ ΠΊΠ°Π½Π΄ΠΈΠ΄Π°ΡΠ° Π½Π°ΡΠΊ ΠΈΠ»ΠΈ Π΄ΠΎΠΊΡΠΎΡΠ° Π½Π°ΡΠΊ.
7. Π‘ΡΠ΅ΠΏΠ΅Π½ΠΈ ΠΊΠ°Π½Π΄ΠΈΠ΄Π°ΡΠ° Π½Π°ΡΠΊ ΠΈ Π΄ΠΎΠΊΡΠΎΡΠ° Π½Π°ΡΠΊ ΠΌΠΎΠ³ΡΡ ΡΠΎΠΏΡΠΎΠ²ΠΎΠΆΠ΄Π°ΡΡΡΡ ΠΏΠΎΡΠ΅ΡΠ½ΡΠΌΠΈ Π·Π²Π°Π½ΠΈΡΠΌΠΈ, ΡΠΎΠΎΡΠ²Π΅ΡΡΡΠ²Π΅Π½Π½ΠΎ, Π΄ΠΎΡΠ΅Π½ΡΠ° ΠΈ ΠΏΡΠΎΡΠ΅ΡΡΠΎΡΠ°.
1. Russia’s educational system was originally inherited from the Soviet Union. For some time education was free for anyone who passed entrance exams, students were provided with small scholarships and free housing.
2. In the Soviet Union institutions were funded entirely from the federal and regional budgets, in post-soviet Russia many institutions were unable to provide adequate teachers’ salaries and students’ scholarships and started to offer (to open) commercial positions.
3. Many private institutions have emerged and are state-accredited, and about 20 per cent of students are enrolled in them.
4. Secondary education in Russia is compulsory up to the 9th grade inclusive, after that a pupil obtains a Certificate of Incomplete Secondary Education.
5. The degrees conferred by Russian universities are as follows: Bachelor’s Degree, Specialist’s Degree and Master’s Degree.
6. Graduates may pursue postgraduate education which may result in the Candidate of Sciences Degree or the Doctor’s Degree.
7. The Candidate’s of Sciences Degree and the Doctor’s Degree may be accompanied by the honourary degrees of assistant professor and professor correspondingly.
ΠΠ· ΠΏΠΎΡΠΎΠ±ΠΈΡ “ΠΠΠ. ΠΠ½Π³Π»ΠΈΠΉΡΠΊΠΈΠΉ ΡΠ·ΡΠΊ. Π£ΡΡΠ½ΡΠ΅ ΡΠ΅ΠΌΡ” ΠΠ°Π½ΠΈΠ½Π° Π. Π. (2010, 272Ρ.) – Part two. Additional topics.