Russian education system was originally inherited from the Soviet Union without any significant changes. In the Soviet Union, education of all levels was free for anybody who could pass entrance exams; students were provided with small scholarships and free housing. It has produced nearly 100 % literacy. In the Soviet Union institutions were funded entirely from the federal and regional budgets. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, institutions found themselves unable to provide adequate teachers’ salaries, students9 scholarships, and to maintain their facilities. Many state institutions started to open commercial positions. The number of those positions has been growing steadily since then. Many private higher education institutions have emerged, too. In 2004, 35 % of all first-year students were paying for their own education in state institutions and 20 % were enrolled in private universities.
Education in Russia may be arranged into three major groups: secondary education, higher education, and postgraduate education. Secondary education in Russia usually takes eleven years to complete. After graduation from the 9th grade, which is compulsory, a pupil obtains a Certificate of Incomplete Secondary Education. After that a pupil has can either continue education for two more years at the secondary school, or to go to a Community College.
The latter variant usually takes three to four years to complete and provides a pupil with qualification sufficient for most blue-collar jobs.
After obtaining a Certificate of Complete Secondary Education a student can enter a University or a Community College. Nowadays, the country has 685 governmental higher education institutions and 619 nongovernmental higher education establishments (1,162 of which are state-accredited). In 2003-2004, the total number of students of higher education institutions was 5,947,500.
There are three different degrees that are conferred by Russian universities: Bachelor’s Degree (4 years), Specialist’s Degree (5-6 years), and Master’s Degree (6 years). Bachelor’s degrees were introduced relatively recently and are not offered by many six-year institutions. After obtaining a Specialist’s or Master’s Degree, a student may pursue postgraduate education. The first level of postgraduate education is aspirantura that usually results in the Candidate of Sciences Degree, roughly equivalent to the Ph. D. in the United States. The second stage would result in the Doctor’s Degree. A Candidate of Sciences Degree may be accompanied by honourary degree of assistant professor and a Doctor’s Degree may be accompanied by honourary degree of professor.
Translate the following sentences into English.
1. Образовательная система России была унаследована от Советского Союза. Определенное время образование было бесплатным для любого, кто проходил вступительные экзамены, студенты обеспечивались небольшими стипендиями и бесплатным жильем.
2. В Советском Союзе вузы финансировались полностью из федерального и регионального бюджетов, в постсоветской России многие институты не смогли обеспечивать достойные зарплаты преподавателям и стипендии студентам и стали предлагать (открывать) платные места.
3. Появилось много частных вузов, которые были аккредитованы государством, в них учится около 20 % студентов.
4. Среднее образование в России обязательно до 9 класса включительно, после чего ученик получает сертификат о неполном среднем образовании.
5. Университеты России присваивают следующие степени: степень бакалавра, степень кандидата и степень магистра.
6. Выпускники могут продолжить образование после окончания вуза, в результате которого они могут получить степень кандидата наук или доктора наук.
7. Степени кандидата наук и доктора наук могут сопровождаться почетными званиями, соответственно, доцента и профессора.
1. Russia’s educational system was originally inherited from the Soviet Union. For some time education was free for anyone who passed entrance exams, students were provided with small scholarships and free housing.
2. In the Soviet Union institutions were funded entirely from the federal and regional budgets, in post-soviet Russia many institutions were unable to provide adequate teachers’ salaries and students’ scholarships and started to offer (to open) commercial positions.
3. Many private institutions have emerged and are state-accredited, and about 20 per cent of students are enrolled in them.
4. Secondary education in Russia is compulsory up to the 9th grade inclusive, after that a pupil obtains a Certificate of Incomplete Secondary Education.
5. The degrees conferred by Russian universities are as follows: Bachelor’s Degree, Specialist’s Degree and Master’s Degree.
6. Graduates may pursue postgraduate education which may result in the Candidate of Sciences Degree or the Doctor’s Degree.
7. The Candidate’s of Sciences Degree and the Doctor’s Degree may be accompanied by the honourary degrees of assistant professor and professor correspondingly.
Из пособия “ЕГЭ. Английский язык. Устные темы” Занина Е. Л. (2010, 272с.) – Part two. Additional topics.