The USA does not have a national system of education. All educational matters are left to states. 50 per cent of funds for education come from state sources, about 40 from local funds, and only 6 per cent from the federal government. There are two major types of schools in the USA – public which are free, and private, or fee-paying. Four of five private schools are run by churches and other religious groups.
Elementary education starts at the age of 6 and continues till 10-11 years. Secondary education is provided from the age 11 – 12. Intermediate school includes grades 6 through 9 for ages 11-12 up to 14-15. A senior high school may include grades 9-10 through 12. A senior high school may be comprehensive, general or vocational. A comprehensive school offers a broad program of academic and vocational education, a general school offers a more limited program. A vocational school focuses on vocational training with some general educational subjects. All such programs – academic, technical, or practical are generally taught under one roof. Nevertheless, many students of high school don’t finish it. 1 per cent of American citizens at the age of 14 can neither read, nor write. High school students who wish to attend a college or a university go through one of the two standard tests – SAT (Scholastic Aptitude Test) and ACT (American College Test). They are given by non-profit, non-governmental organizations.
There are several ways to continue in education: universities, colleges, community colleges, and technical and vocational schools. A university in the USA usually consists of several colleges; each college specializes in a subject area. There are colleges of liberal arts, colleges of education and business colleges. A program for undergraduates usually takes four years and leads to the Bachelor of Arts or Science degree. After that, students may leave the university or go on for a graduate or professional degree. The university may be funded from several different sources. A publicly funded university gets some money form the state government. A privately funded university gets money from private sources only. A university may be funded by a religious group.
College students usually spend four years at the college, too, and get the Bachelor’s degree. In contrast to universities, colleges don’t have graduate or professional programs. Colleges in the USA differ greatly in size – they may include from 100 students to 5000 and more. Most of the larger institutions fall into the category of universities, the largest being the University of California, State university of New York, New York university, Columbia University and others.
The course of study in a community college lasts two years and doesn’t lead to any degree. Community colleges may give courses in the regular academic subjects or subject like dental technology, sewing and other non-academic subjects. Not all students of community colleges have high school diplomas.
Technical, or vocational schools have no academic programs and provide only job training. Programs may take from six months to two years and more.
Translate the following sentences into English.
1. Π Π‘Π¨Π, Π³Π΄Π΅ Π²ΡΠ΅ Π²ΠΎΠΏΡΠΎΡΡ ΠΎΠ±ΡΠ°Π·ΠΎΠ²Π°Π½ΠΈΡ Π½Π°Ρ ΠΎΠ΄ΡΡΡΡ Π² Π²Π΅Π΄Π΅Π½ΠΈΠΈ ΡΡΠ°ΡΠΎΠ², ΠΎΠ±ΡΠ°Π·ΠΎΠ²Π°Π½ΠΈΠ΅ ΡΠΈΠ½Π°Π½ΡΠΈΡΡΠ΅ΡΡΡ ΡΡΠ°ΡΠ°ΠΌΠΈ, ΠΈΠ· ΠΌΠ΅ΡΡΠ½ΡΡ ΡΠΎΠ½Π΄ΠΎΠ² ΠΈ ΡΠ΅Π»ΠΈΠ³ΠΈΠΎΠ·Π½ΡΠΌΠΈ Π³ΡΡΠΏΠΏΠ°ΠΌΠΈ, ΠΈ ΡΠΎΠ»ΡΠΊΠΎ ΠΎΠΊΠΎΠ»ΠΎ 6 ΠΏΡΠΎΡΠ΅Π½ΡΠΎΠ² ΡΠΈΠ½Π°Π½ΡΠΈΡΠΎΠ²Π°Π½ΠΈΡ ΠΈΡΡ ΠΎΠ΄ΠΈΡ ΠΎΡ ΡΠ΅Π΄Π΅ΡΠ°Π»ΡΠ½ΠΎΠ³ΠΎ ΠΏΡΠ°Π²ΠΈΡΠ΅Π»ΡΡΡΠ²Π°.
2. Π Π‘Π¨Π ΠΎΠ±ΡΠ΅ΡΡΠ²Π΅Π½Π½ΡΠ΅ ΡΠΊΠΎΠ»Ρ Π±Π΅ΡΠΏΠ»Π°ΡΠ½ΡΠ΅, Π° ΡΠ°ΡΡΠ½ΡΠ΅ ΡΠΊΠΎΠ»Ρ ΠΏΠ»Π°ΡΠ½ΡΠ΅.
3. Π¨ΠΊΠΎΠ»ΡΠ½ΠΎΠ΅ ΠΎΠ±ΡΠ°Π·ΠΎΠ²Π°Π½ΠΈΠ΅ ΡΠΎΡΡΠΎΠΈΡ ΠΈΠ· Π½Π°ΡΠ°Π»ΡΠ½ΠΎΠ³ΠΎ ΠΎΠ±ΡΠ°Π·ΠΎΠ²Π°Π½ΠΈΡ, ΠΏΡΠΎΠΌΠ΅ΠΆΡΡΠΎΡΠ½ΠΎΠ³ΠΎ ΠΎΠ±ΡΠ°Π·ΠΎΠ²Π°Π½ΠΈΡ ΠΈ ΡΡΠ°ΡΡΠΈΡ ΠΊΠ»Π°ΡΡΠΎΠ² ΡΡΠ΅Π΄Π½Π΅ΠΉ ΡΠΊΠΎΠ»Ρ.
4. Π ΡΡΠ°ΡΡΠΈΡ ΠΊΠ»Π°ΡΡΠ°Ρ ΡΡΠ΅Π΄Π½Π΅ΠΉ ΠΎΠ±ΡΠ΅ΠΎΠ±ΡΠ°Π·ΠΎΠ²Π°ΡΠ΅Π»ΡΠ½ΠΎΠΉ ΡΠΊΠΎΠ»Ρ ΠΏΡΠ΅Π΄Π»Π°Π³Π°Π΅ΡΡΡ ΠΎΠ±ΡΠΈΡΠ½Π°Ρ ΠΏΡΠΎΠ³ΡΠ°ΠΌΠΌΠ° Π°ΠΊΠ°Π΄Π΅ΠΌΠΈΡΠ΅ΡΠΊΠΈΡ ΠΈ ΠΏΡΠΎΡΠ΅ΡΡΠΈΠΎΠ½Π°Π»ΡΠ½ΡΡ ΠΏΡΠ΅Π΄ΠΌΠ΅ΡΠΎΠ², ΠΏΡΠ΅ΠΏΠΎΠ΄Π°Π²Π°Π΅ΠΌΡΡ Π² ΠΎΠ΄Π½ΠΎΠΌ Π·Π΄Π°Π½ΠΈΠΈ.
5. ΠΡΠΎΠ³ΡΠ°ΠΌΠΌΠ° ΠΎΠ±ΡΠ΅ΠΉ ΡΠΊΠΎΠ»Ρ Π±ΠΎΠ»Π΅Π΅ ΠΎΠ³ΡΠ°Π½ΠΈΡΠ΅Π½Π°, ΡΠ΅ΠΌ ΠΏΡΠΎΠ³ΡΠ°ΠΌΠΌΠ° ΠΎΠ±ΡΠ΅ΠΎΠ±ΡΠ°Π·ΠΎΠ²Π°ΡΠ΅Π»ΡΠ½ΠΎΠΉ ΡΠΊΠΎΠ»Ρ.
6. ΠΡΠΎΠ³ΡΠ°ΠΌΠΌΠ° ΠΏΡΠΎΡΠ΅ΡΡΠΈΠΎΠ½Π°Π»ΡΠ½ΠΎΠΉ ΡΠΊΠΎΠ»Ρ ΠΏΡΠ΅Π΄Π»Π°Π³Π°Π΅Ρ ΠΏΡΠΎΡΠ΅ΡΡΠΈΠΎΠ½Π°Π»ΡΠ½ΡΡ ΠΏΠΎΠ΄Π³ΠΎΡΠΎΠ²ΠΊΡ ΠΈ Π½Π΅ΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΡΡΠ΅ Π°ΠΊΠ°Π΄Π΅ΠΌΠΈΡΠ΅ΡΠΊΠΈΠ΅ ΠΏΡΠ΅Π΄ΠΌΠ΅ΡΡ.
7. ΠΡΠΏΡΡΠΊΠ½ΠΈΠΊΠΈ ΡΡΠ΅Π΄Π½Π΅ΠΉ ΡΠΊΠΎΠ»Ρ Π΄ΠΎΠ»ΠΆΠ½Ρ ΡΠ΄Π°ΡΡ ΠΎΠ΄ΠΈΠ½ ΠΈΠ· Π΄Π²ΡΡ ΡΡΠ°Π½Π΄Π°ΡΡΠ½ΡΡ ΡΠ΅ΡΡΠΎΠ², SAT ΠΈΠ»ΠΈ ACT, ΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΡΡΠ΅ ΠΏΡΠΎΠ²ΠΎΠ΄ΡΡΡΡ Π½Π΅ΠΊΠΎΠΌΠΌΠ΅ΡΡΠ΅ΡΠΊΠΈΠΌΠΈ, Π½Π΅ΠΏΡΠ°Π²ΠΈΡΠ΅Π»ΡΡΡΠ²Π΅Π½Π½ΡΠΌΠΈ ΠΎΡΠ³Π°Π½ΠΈΠ·Π°ΡΠΈΡΠΌΠΈ.
8. ΠΡΠΏΡΡΠΊΠ½ΠΈΠΊΠΈ ΡΡΠ΅Π΄Π½Π΅ΠΉ ΡΠΊΠΎΠ»Ρ, ΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΡΡΠ΅ Ρ ΠΎΡΡΡ ΠΏΡΠΎΠ΄ΠΎΠ»ΠΆΠΈΡΡ ΠΎΠ±ΡΠ°Π·ΠΎΠ²Π°Π½ΠΈΠ΅ Π² Π²ΡΠ·Π΅, ΠΌΠΎΠ³ΡΡ ΠΏΠΎΠΏΡΡΠ°ΡΡΡΡ ΠΏΠΎΡΡΡΠΏΠΈΡΡ Π² ΡΠ½ΠΈΠ²Π΅ΡΡΠΈΡΠ΅Ρ, ΠΊΠΎΠ»Π»Π΅Π΄ΠΆ ΠΈΠ»ΠΈ ΡΠ΅Ρ Π½ΠΈΡΠ΅ΡΠΊΡΡ ΠΈΠ»ΠΈ ΠΏΡΠΎΡΠ΅ΡΡΠΈΠΎΠ½Π°Π»ΡΠ½ΡΡ ΡΠΊΠΎΠ»Ρ.
9. ΠΡΠΎΠ³ΡΠ°ΠΌΠΌΠ° Π΄Π»Ρ ΡΡΡΠ΄Π΅Π½ΡΠΎΠ² ΠΊΠΎΠ»Π»Π΅Π΄ΠΆΠ° ΠΈΠ»ΠΈ ΡΠ½ΠΈΠ²Π΅ΡΡΠΈΡΠ΅ΡΠ° Π·Π°ΠΊΠ°Π½ΡΠΈΠ²Π°Π΅ΡΡΡ ΠΏΡΠΈΡΠ²ΠΎΠ΅Π½ΠΈΠ΅ΠΌ Π·Π²Π°Π½ΠΈΡ Π±Π°ΠΊΠ°Π»Π°Π²ΡΠ° Π³ΡΠΌΠ°Π½ΠΈΡΠ°ΡΠ½ΡΡ ΠΈΠ»ΠΈ ΡΠΎΡΠ½ΡΡ ΠΈ Π΅ΡΡΠ΅ΡΡΠ²Π΅Π½Π½ΡΡ Π½Π°ΡΠΊ.
10. ΠΡΠΏΡΡΠΊΠ½ΠΈΠΊΠΈ ΠΊΠΎΠ»Π»Π΅Π΄ΠΆΠ° Π΄ΠΎΠ»ΠΆΠ½Ρ ΠΈΠ΄ΡΠΈ Π² ΡΠ½ΠΈΠ²Π΅ΡΡΠΈΡΠ΅Ρ, ΡΡΠΎΠ±Ρ ΠΏΠΎΠ»ΡΡΠΈΡΡ ΡΡΠ΅Π½ΡΡ ΡΡΠ΅ΠΏΠ΅Π½Ρ Π²ΡΡΠ΅ Π±Π°ΠΊΠ°Π»Π°Π²ΡΠ° ΠΈΠ»ΠΈ ΠΏΡΠΎΡΠ΅ΡΡΠΈΠΎΠ½Π°Π»ΡΠ½ΡΡ ΡΡΠ΅ΠΏΠ΅Π½Ρ.
1. In the USA, where all educational matters are left to states, education is funded from state sources, local funds and by religious groups. Only about 6 per cent of funds come from the federal government.
2. Public schools in the USA are free, and private schools are fee-paying.
3. School education consists of elementary education, intermediate education and high education.
4. A comprehensive senior high school offers a broad program of academic and vocational subjects taught under one roof.
5. The program of a general school is more limited than that of a comprehensive school.
6. A vocational school offers vocational training with some academic subjects.
7. High school graduates have to go through standard tests, SAT or ACT, given by non-profit, non-governmental organisations.
8. High school graduates who wish to go on to higher education can try to enter a university, a college, or a technical or vocational school.
9. A program for undergraduates at a college or a university leads to the Bachelor of Arts or Sciences degree.
10. College graduates have to go to universities to get a graduate or a professional degree.
ΠΠ· ΠΏΠΎΡΠΎΠ±ΠΈΡ “ΠΠΠ. ΠΠ½Π³Π»ΠΈΠΉΡΠΊΠΈΠΉ ΡΠ·ΡΠΊ. Π£ΡΡΠ½ΡΠ΅ ΡΠ΅ΠΌΡ” ΠΠ°Π½ΠΈΠ½Π° Π. Π. (2010, 272Ρ.) – Part two. Additional topics.