Π’ΠΎΠΏΠΈΠΊ ΠΠ°ΡΠ°Π½ΠΈΠ΅ Π½Π° Π»ΡΠΆΠ°Ρ ΡΠ°ΡΡΠΊΠ°Π·ΡΠ²Π°Π΅Ρ ΠΈΠ½ΡΠ΅ΡΠ΅ΡΠ½ΡΠ΅ ΠΈΡΡΠΎΡΠΈΠΈ ΠΎ ΠΏΠΎΡΠ²Π»Π΅Π½ΠΈΠΈ Π»ΡΠΆ, ΠΈΡ ΠΏΡΠΈΠΌΠ΅Π½Π΅Π½ΠΈΠΈ Π² Π΄ΡΠ΅Π²Π½ΠΎΡΡΠΈ, ΠΈΡ ΡΡΠΎΠ²Π΅ΡΡΠ΅Π½ΡΡΠ²ΠΎΠ²Π°Π½ΠΈΠΈ ΡΠΎ Π²ΡΠ΅ΠΌΠ΅Π½Π΅ΠΌ ΠΈ Π²ΠΎΠ·Π½ΠΈΠΊΠ½ΠΎΠ²Π΅Π½ΠΈΠΈ ΠΎΠ΄Π½ΠΎΠ³ΠΎ ΠΈΠ· ΡΠ°ΠΌΡΡ ΠΏΠΎΠΏΡΠ»ΡΡΠ½ΡΡ Π²ΠΈΠ΄ΠΎΠ² Π·ΠΈΠΌΠ½Π΅Π³ΠΎ ΡΠΏΠΎΡΡΠ° – Π»ΡΠΆΠ½ΠΎΠ³ΠΎ. ΠΡΠΆΠΈ Π±ΡΠ»ΠΈ ΠΈΠ·ΠΎΠ±ΡΠ΅ΡΠ΅Π½Ρ ΡΠ΅Π²Π΅ΡΠ½ΡΠΌΠΈ Π½Π°ΡΠΎΠ΄Π°ΠΌΠΈ Π² ΠΏΡΠΎΡΠ΅ΡΡΠ΅ ΠΌΠΈΠ³ΡΠ°ΡΠΈΠΈ Π² ΠΎΠ±Π»Π°ΡΡΠΈ Ρ Ρ ΠΎΠ»ΠΎΠ΄Π½ΡΠΌ ΠΊΠ»ΠΈΠΌΠ°ΡΠΎΠΌ ΠΈ Π΄ΠΎΠ»Π³ΠΎΠΉ Π·ΠΈΠΌΠΎΠΉ. ΠΠ»Ρ Π²ΡΠΆΠΈΠ²Π°Π½ΠΈΡ Π»ΡΠ΄ΡΠΌ Π±ΡΠ»ΠΎ Π½Π΅ΠΎΠ±Ρ ΠΎΠ΄ΠΈΠΌΠΎ ΠΏΠ΅ΡΠ΅Π΄Π²ΠΈΠ³Π°ΡΡΡΡ ΠΏΠΎ ΡΠ½Π΅Π³Ρ, ΠΏΠΎΡΠΎΠΉ ΠΎΡΠ΅Π½Ρ Π³Π»ΡΠ±ΠΎΠΊΠΎΠΌΡ. Π‘Π½Π°ΡΠ°Π»Π° Π±ΡΠ»ΠΈ ΠΈΠ·ΠΎΠ±ΡΠ΅ΡΠ΅Π½Ρ ΡΠ½Π΅Π³ΠΎΡΡΡΠΏΡ – ΠΏΡΠΈΡΠΏΠΎΡΠΎΠ±Π»Π΅Π½ΠΈΡ, ΡΠ²Π΅Π»ΠΈΡΠΈΠ²Π°ΡΡΠΈΠ΅ ΠΏΠ»ΠΎΡΠ°Π΄Ρ ΠΎΠΏΠΎΡΡ Π½ΠΎΠ³ ΠΈ ΡΠ΅ΠΌ ΡΠ°ΠΌΡΠΌ ΠΏΡΠ΅Π΄ΠΎΡΠ²ΡΠ°ΡΠ°ΡΡΠΈΠ΅ ΠΏΡΠΎΠ²Π°Π»ΠΈΠ²Π°Π½ΠΈΠ΅ ΠΏΠΎΠ΄ ΡΠ½Π΅Π³. Π ΠΏΡΠΎΡΠ΅ΡΡΠ΅ ΡΠ°Π·Π²ΠΈΡΠΈΡ ΡΡΠΎΠ³ΠΎ ΠΈΠ·ΠΎΠ±ΡΠ΅ΡΠ΅Π½ΠΈΡ ΠΏΠΎΡΠ²ΠΈΠ»ΠΈΡΡ Π»ΡΠΆΠΈ-ΡΠ½Π΅Π³ΠΎΡΡΡΠΏΡ, Π·Π°ΡΠ΅ΠΌ – Π»ΡΠΆΠΈ “ΡΠΊΠΎΠ»ΡΠ·ΡΡΠΈΠ΅”. ΠΠ΅ΡΠ²ΠΎΠ΅ ΠΏΠΈΡΡΠΌΠ΅Π½Π½ΠΎΠ΅ ΡΠΏΠΎΠΌΠΈΠ½Π°Π½ΠΈΠ΅ ΠΎ Π»ΡΠΆΠ°Ρ ΠΏΠΎΡΠ²Π»ΡΠ΅ΡΡΡ ΠΎΠΊΠΎΠ»ΠΎ 1000 Π³. Π½. Ρ. Π² “Π‘Π°Π³Π°Ρ ” ΡΠΏΠΎΡ ΠΈ Π²ΠΈΠΊΠΈΠ½Π³ΠΎΠ². ΠΡΠΈ Π°ΡΡ Π΅ΠΎΠ»ΠΎΠ³ΠΈΡΠ΅ΡΠΊΠΈΡ ΡΠ°ΡΠΊΠΎΠΏΠΊΠ°Ρ , Π΄ΡΠ΅Π²Π½ΠΈΠ΅ Π»ΡΠΆΠΈ Π±ΡΠ»ΠΈ Π½Π°ΠΉΠ΄Π΅Π½Ρ Π² Π¨Π²Π΅ΡΠΈΠΈ, Π‘ΠΊΠ°Π½Π΄ΠΈΠ½Π°Π²ΠΈΠΈ ΠΈ ΠΠ°ΠΏΠ»Π°Π½Π΄ΠΈΠΈ. ΠΠ΅ΡΠ²ΠΎΠ½Π°ΡΠ°Π»ΡΠ½ΠΎ Π»ΡΠΆΠΈ ΠΈΡΠΏΠΎΠ»ΡΠ·ΠΎΠ²Π°Π»ΠΈΡΡ ΠΏΠΎ ΠΏΡΡΠΌΠΎΠΌΡ Π½Π°Π·Π½Π°ΡΠ΅Π½ΠΈΡ – Π΄Π»Ρ ΠΏΠ΅ΡΠ΅Π΄Π²ΠΈΠΆΠ΅Π½ΠΈΡ ΠΏΠΎ Π³Π»ΡΠ±ΠΎΠΊΠΎΠΌΡ ΡΠ½Π΅Π³Ρ Π² Π»Π΅ΡΡ, Π²ΠΎ Π²ΡΠ΅ΠΌΡ ΠΎΡ ΠΎΡΡ, ΠΈ ΡΡΠΎ ΠΎΠΏΡΠ΅Π΄Π΅Π»ΡΠ»ΠΎ ΠΈΡ ΡΠΎΠ³Π΄Π°ΡΠ½ΠΈΠ΅ ΠΏΡΠΎΠΏΠΎΡΡΠΈΠΈ – ΠΎΠ½ΠΈ Π±ΡΠ»ΠΈ ΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΡΠΊΠΈΠ΅ ΠΈ ΡΠΈΡΠΎΠΊΠΈΠ΅, ΡΠ΄ΠΎΠ±Π½ΡΠ΅ ΡΠΊΠΎΡΠ΅Π΅ Π΄Π»Ρ ΠΏΠ΅ΡΠ΅ΡΡΡΠΏΠ°Π½ΠΈΡ, ΡΠ΅ΠΌ Π΄Π»Ρ ΡΠΊΠΎΠ»ΡΠΆΠ΅Π½ΠΈΡ. ΠΠΎΠ³Π΄Π° Π»ΡΠΆΠΈ ΡΡΠ°Π»ΠΈ Π±ΡΡΡΡΠ΅Π΅ ΠΈ ΡΠ½ΠΈΠ²Π΅ΡΡΠ°Π»ΡΠ½Π΅Π΅, ΠΈΡ ΡΡΠ°Π»ΠΈ ΠΈΡΠΏΠΎΠ»ΡΠ·ΠΎΠ²Π°ΡΡ Π² Π±ΠΎΠ΅Π²ΡΡ Π΄Π΅ΠΉΡΡΠ²ΠΈΡΡ Π² Π·ΠΈΠΌΠ½Π΅Π΅ Π²ΡΠ΅ΠΌΡ. Π ΠΊΠΎΠ½ΡΠ΅ 19-Π³ΠΎ ΠΈ Π½Π°ΡΠ°Π»Π΅ 20-Π³ΠΎ Π²Π΅ΠΊΠ° ΠΏΠΎΡΠ²ΠΈΠ»ΡΡ Π»ΡΠΆΠ½ΡΠΉ ΡΠΏΠΎΡΡ β Π²ΠΈΠ΄ Π΄ΠΎΡΡΠ³Π°, Π·Π°ΠΊΠ»ΡΡΠ°ΡΡΠΈΠΉΡΡ Π² ΠΏΠ΅ΡΠ΅ΠΌΠ΅ΡΠ΅Π½ΠΈΠΈ Π½Π° Π»ΡΠΆΠ°Ρ Π½Π° ΡΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΡΡΡ ΠΈΠ»ΠΈ ΡΠ°Π΄ΠΈ ΡΠ΄ΠΎΠ²ΠΎΠ»ΡΡΡΠ²ΠΈΡ. ΠΠΎΡΠ²ΠΈΠ»ΠΈΡΡ Π»ΡΠΆΠΈ Ρ Π΄ΡΡΠ³ΠΈΠΌΠΈ ΠΏΡΠΎΠΏΠΎΡΡΠΈΡΠΌΠΈ, Π±ΠΎΠ»Π΅Π΅ ΠΏΠΎΠ΄Ρ ΠΎΠ΄ΡΡΠΈΠΌΠΈ Π΄Π»Ρ ΡΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΡΡΠ½ΠΎΠ³ΠΎ Π±Π΅Π³Π°. ΠΡΠΈΠΌΠ΅ΡΠ½ΠΎ Π² ΡΡΠΎ ΠΆΠ΅ Π²ΡΠ΅ΠΌΡ ΠΏΠΎΡΠ²ΠΈΠ»ΠΈΡΡ ΠΈ Π»ΡΠΆΠ½ΡΠ΅ ΠΏΠ°Π»ΠΊΠΈ, ΡΡΡΠ΅ΡΡΠ²Π΅Π½Π½ΠΎ ΠΎΠ±Π»Π΅Π³ΡΠ°ΡΡΠΈΠ΅ ΠΈ ΡΡΠΊΠΎΡΡΡΡΠΈΠ΅ ΠΏΠ΅ΡΠ΅Π΄Π²ΠΈΠΆΠ΅Π½ΠΈΠ΅ Π½Π° Π»ΡΠΆΠ°Ρ . ΠΠΎΡΡΠ΅ΠΏΠ΅Π½Π½ΠΎ Π»ΡΠΆΠΈ ΠΏΠΎΠ»Π½ΠΎΡΡΡΡ ΠΏΡΠ΅Π²ΡΠ°ΡΠΈΠ»ΠΈΡΡ Π² ΡΠΏΠΎΡΡΠΈΠ²Π½ΡΠΉ ΠΈΠ½Π²Π΅Π½ΡΠ°ΡΡ ΠΈ ΠΏΡΠΈΠ½ΡΠ»ΠΈ Π·Π½Π°ΠΊΠΎΠΌΡΠΉ Π²ΠΈΠ΄. ΠΠΎΠ³Π΄Π° Π΅Π²ΡΠΎΠΏΠ΅ΠΉΡΠ°ΠΌ ΡΡΠ°Π»ΠΎ ΠΈΠ·Π²Π΅ΡΡΠ½ΠΎ ΠΎ ΠΊΠ°ΡΠ°Π½ΠΈΠΈ Π½Π° Π»ΡΠΆΠ°Ρ , ΠΏΠΎΠΏΡΠ»ΡΡΠ½ΠΎΡΡΡ ΡΡΠΎΠ³ΠΎ Π²ΠΈΠ΄Π° ΡΠΏΠΎΡΡΠ° ΡΠΈΠ»ΡΠ½ΠΎ Π²ΠΎΠ·ΡΠΎΡΠ»Π°, ΠΈ ΠΊ 1870 Π³ΠΎΠ΄Ρ ΠΊΠ°ΡΠ°Π½ΠΈΠ΅ Π±ΡΠ»ΠΎ ΡΠΈΡΠΎΠΊΠΎ ΡΠ°ΡΠΏΡΠΎΡΡΡΠ°Π½Π΅Π½ΠΎ Π² Π¦Π΅Π½ΡΡΠ°Π»ΡΠ½ΠΎΠΉ ΠΠ²ΡΠΎΠΏΠ΅. ΠΠΎΡΠ½ΠΎΠ»ΡΠΆΠ½Π°Ρ ΠΈΠ½Π΄ΡΡΡΡΠΈΡ ΡΡΠ°Π»Π° Π±ΡΡΡΡΠΎ ΡΠ°Π·Π²ΠΈΠ²Π°ΡΡΡΡ ΠΏΠΎΡΠ»Π΅ ΠΡΠΎΡΠΎΠΉ ΠΠΈΡΠΎΠ²ΠΎΠΉ Π²ΠΎΠΉΠ½Ρ, ΠΎΡΠΎΠ±Π΅Π½Π½ΠΎ, Π² ΠΠ²ΡΡΡΠΈΠΈ ΠΈ Π¨Π²Π΅ΠΉΡΠ°ΡΠΈΠΈ. Π Π½Π°ΡΠ΅ Π²ΡΠ΅ΠΌΡ, Ρ Π»ΡΠΆΠ½ΠΎΠ³ΠΎ ΡΠΏΠΎΡΡΠ° ΠΎΠΊΠΎΠ»ΠΎ 45 ΠΌΠΈΠ»Π»ΠΈΠΎΠ½ΠΎΠ² ΠΏΠΎΠΊΠ»ΠΎΠ½Π½ΠΈΠΊΠΎΠ² ΠΏΠΎ Π²ΡΠ΅ΠΌΡ ΠΌΠΈΡΡ. ΠΠΎΠ»Π΅Π΅ ΡΠ΅ΠΌ 6000 Π»ΡΠΆΠ½ΡΡ ΠΊΡΡΠΎΡΡΠΎΠ² Π² Π±ΠΎΠ»Π΅Π΅ ΡΠ΅ΠΌ 70 ΡΡΡΠ°Π½Π°Ρ ΠΌΠΈΡΠ°: Π² Π‘Π΅Π²Π΅ΡΠ½ΠΎΠΉ ΠΠΌΠ΅ΡΠΈΠΊΠ΅, Π ΠΎΡΡΠΈΠΈ, Π―ΠΏΠΎΠ½ΠΈΠΈ, Π§ΠΈΠ»ΠΈ, ΠΡΠ³Π΅Π½ΡΠΈΠ½Π΅, ΠΠ²ΡΡΡΠ°Π»ΠΈΠΈ, ΠΠΎΠ²ΠΎΠΉ ΠΠ΅Π»Π°Π½Π΄ΠΈΠΈ, ΠΡΠ°Π½Π΅, ΠΠ°ΡΠΎΠΊΠΊΠΎ, ΠΠΈΠ²Π°Π½Π΅, ΠΡΠ΅ΡΠΈΠΈ, Π’ΡΡΡΠΈΠΈ, ΠΡΠΏΠ°Π½ΠΈΠΈ ΠΈ ΠΠΎΡΡΡΠ³Π°Π»ΠΈΠΈ, ΠΠΎΠ»Π³Π°ΡΠΈΠΈ ΠΈ Π ΡΠΌΡΠ½ΠΈΠΈ.
Skiing is the most popular of all winter sports. It is believed that skiing comes from northern Europe and Siberia, where it was a vital means of transportation during the long, snowbound months of winter. The pre-historic people of these regions used skis to keep hunters on top of the snow. Wooden planks were strapped to feet, to prevent sinking and making it possible to glide over the snow and travel faster. Skiing was such an important way of life in Scandinavia that the Vikings worshipped Ull and Skade, the god and goddess of winter skiing. The first written account of skiing appears circa 1000 A. D. in the Viking “Sagas” where several kings are described as being superb skiers.
The word “ski” is a Norwegian word which comes from the Old Norse word “skid”, a board or a piece of split wood. The first hints to the existence of skis are on 4,500 to 5,000 years old rock carving at the Norwegian Island of Rodoy, showing a man on long runners with a hunting implement in hand. The oldest ski on record, being 1.10 m. long and 20 cm. broad was found in a peat bog in Hoting, Sweden and it is estimated to be about 4,500 years old. Several other skis have been found all throughout Scandinavia and Lapland. These ancient skis show regional differences in length and width, indicating a gradual refinement in technology.
The findings of old skis and its role in literature show that skiing is deeply engrained in Nordic history. As skis became quicker and more versatile, their application shifted from hunting gear towards military purposes. Skis were first used in warfare in AD 1200 in the battle of Oslo, in Norway when Norwegian scouts used skis to spy on Swedish enemies. In 1206, during the Norwegian civil war, two scouts on skis carried the infant heir to the throne 35 miles to safety in the middle of winter. The historic event is celebrated today by the “Birchleg Race” over the same route – so called because the scouts wrapped their legs in birch bark to keep them warm and dry.
Another illustrative example is found in Sweden history. In 1521 the Danes overran Sweden and massacred all the Swedish nobles but one, Gustav Vasa, who was able to escape. The Swedes were left without a leader, so two desparate peasants set out on skis to find Gustav. He came back, drove the Danes out of Sweden, and set up the kingdom that survives to this day. During the 1700s, the people of Telemark, Southern Norway, developed skiing into a sport. They invented the Telemark and the Christiana (now known as the Christie) turns as methods of artfully controlling speeds on downhill descents. The ideas of these early pioneers helped pave the way for the disciplines of both downhill (Alpine) and cross-country (Nordic) skiing.
The first evolution of skiing came in 1868 for downhill skis. Sondre Nordheim from the Telemark region, an outstanding craftsman and skier, developed the first binding that went around the heel, stabilizing the boot on the ski. He also contouring his skis so that they were slightly waisted in the middle. The new binding and refinement of the ski shape gave the skier more control, allowing for sharper turns, faster speeds and the ability to negotiate steeper slopes. Sondre Norheim is often called the “father of modern skiing”.
When Europeans became aware of their Norwegian neighbors amusement with skiing, the sport’s popularity grew. By 1870, the skiing had spread to central Europe but soon became apparent that the techniques used by the Scandinavians were unsuitable for mountainous terrain, especially in the Alps of south central Europe. Nordic techniques were therefore adapted for the steeper slopes, and Alpine skiing was born. Alpine skiing became a popular European pastime in the 1930s, as ski lifts were invented and that eliminated the labor of climbing a mountain before experiencing an exhilarating descent. The invention of the ski lift is credited to a young German engineer, Gerhard Mueller, who used parts of a motorbike and some rope to create the world’s first rope tow.
The ski industry emerged and began in earnest after the Second World War, when Austria and Switzerland came out with the first Alpine Ski Resorts. The rapid advance of materials and technology further popularized the sport all over the world. Ski manufacturers developed faster and safer equipment which combined with the improving skills of the skiers to make the sport of skiing more intense, and easier to learn.
Nowadays, skiing has about 45 million fans worldwide. There are over 6,000 ski resorts around the world in more than 70 different countries. Most of these are in Europe, with 1,000 or so each in North America and Asia (Russia and Japan). Great ski resorts also exist in Chile, Argentina, Australia and New Zealand; they are found in hot countries such as Iran, Morocco, Lebanon, Greece, Turkey, Spain and Portugal; and since the end of the Cold War, East European countries such as Bulgaria and Romania, with their upgraded winter resorts provide excellent opportunities for ski enthusiasts of all levels.