Churchill was undoubtedly one of the greatest public figures of the 20th century. Extraordinary vitality, imagination, and boldness characterized his whole career. His weaknesses, such as his opposition to the expansion of colonial self-government, and his strengths sprang from the same source – the will to maintain Britain as a great power and a great democracy.
Educated at Harrow and Sandhurst, he became (1894) an officer. He saw his first military action in Cuba as a reporter for London’s Daily Graphic. In 1899 he was sent to cover the South African War by the Morning Post, and his accounts of his imprisonment by the Boers and his escape raised him to the forefront of English journalists.
Churchill was elected to Parliament as a Conservative in 1900, but he subsequently switched to the Liberal party and was appointed undersecretary for the president of the Board of Trade, then Home Secretary (1910-1911). As first Lord of the Admiralty (1911), he presided over the naval expansion that preceded World War I. In 1915 Churchill lost his admiralty post and served on the front lines in France. Returning to office under Lloyd George, he served as Minister of Munitions (1917) and secretary of state for war and for air (1918-1921). As colonial secretary (1921 -1922), he helped negotiate the treaty that set up the Irish Free State.
In 1940, when Chamberlain was forced to resign, Churchill became Prime Minister. Churchill was one of the truly great orators famous for his energy and stubborn public refusal to make peace until Adolf Hitler was crushed. He met President Franklin Roosevelt at sea before the entry of the United States into the war, twice addressed the US Congress (1941; 1942), twice went to Moscow (1942; 1944), visited battle fronts, and attended a long series of international conferences in Casablanca, Quebec, Cairo, Tehran, Yalta and Potsdam.
After the war Churchill became leader of the Labour opposition. As prime minister again from 1951 until his resignation in 1955, he ended nationalization of the steel and auto industries but maintained most other socialist measures instituted by the Labour government. In 1953 Churchill was knighted, and awarded the 1953 Nobel Prize in Literature for his writing and oratory. He retained a seat in Parliament until 1964, and refused a peerage which was offered.
Translate the following sentences into English.
1. Его слабые и сильные стороны происходили из одного источника – желания сохранить позиции Великобритании как великой державы и великой демократической страны.
2. Черчилль был знаменит своей жизненной силой, силой характера и смелостью.
3. Отчет Черчилля о пребывании в тюрьме буров выдвинул его на передний план среди британских журналистов.
4. Он был избран в парламент от консервативной партии, затем перешел в либеральную партию и получал назначения на разные должности: заместителя министра торговли, министра внутренних дел, лорда адмиралтейства, министра по снабжению армии, министра по военным действиям и военно-воздушному флоту, и, в конце концов, премьер-министра.
5. В течение Второй мировой войны Черчилль публично отказался заключить мирный договор с нацистской Германией, ездил на передовую и был участником многих международных конференций.
6. Он положил конец национализации сталелитейной и автомобильной промышленности, но поддерживал другие социалистические меры, принимаемые правительством лейбористов.
7. Черчиллю было присвоено рыцарское звание, он был награжден Нобелевской премией в области литературы и получил предложение о присвоении звания пэра, от которого он отказался.
8. Он был лидером лейбористской оппозиции, когда у власти находилась консервативная партия, затем снова премьер-министром, вплоть до ухода в отставку в 1955 году, и сохранил место в парламенте до 1964 года.
1. Churchil’s weaknesses and strengths sprang from the same source – the will to maintain Britain as a great power and a great democracy.
2. Churchill was famous for his vitality, strength of character and boldness.
3. Churchill’s accounts of his imprisonment by the Boers raised him to the forefront of English journalists.
4. He was elected to Parliament as a Conservative, switched to the Liberal party and was appointed to several positions: undersecretary for the president of the Board of Trade, home secretary, Lord of the Admiralty, Minister of Munitions, Secretary of state for war and air, and, finally prime minister.
5. During W)rid W&r II Churchill publicly refused to make peace with nazi Germany, visited battle fronts and attended many international conferences.
6. He ended nationalization of the steel and auto industries but maintained other socialist measures instituted by the Labour government.
7. Churchill was knighted, awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature and offered a peerage which he refused.
8. He was the leader of the Labour opposition when the Conservative party was in power, then prime minister again until his resignation in 1955 and retained a seat in Parliament until 1964.
Из пособия “ЕГЭ. Английский язык. Устные темы” Занина Е. Л. (2010, 272с.) – Part two. Additional topics.