Churchill was undoubtedly one of the greatest public figures of the 20th century. Extraordinary vitality, imagination, and boldness characterized his whole career. His weaknesses, such as his opposition to the expansion of colonial self-government, and his strengths sprang from the same source – the will to maintain Britain as a great power and a great democracy.
Educated at Harrow and Sandhurst, he became (1894) an officer. He saw his first military action in Cuba as a reporter for London’s Daily Graphic. In 1899 he was sent to cover the South African War by the Morning Post, and his accounts of his imprisonment by the Boers and his escape raised him to the forefront of English journalists.
Churchill was elected to Parliament as a Conservative in 1900, but he subsequently switched to the Liberal party and was appointed undersecretary for the president of the Board of Trade, then Home Secretary (1910-1911). As first Lord of the Admiralty (1911), he presided over the naval expansion that preceded World War I. In 1915 Churchill lost his admiralty post and served on the front lines in France. Returning to office under Lloyd George, he served as Minister of Munitions (1917) and secretary of state for war and for air (1918-1921). As colonial secretary (1921 -1922), he helped negotiate the treaty that set up the Irish Free State.
In 1940, when Chamberlain was forced to resign, Churchill became Prime Minister. Churchill was one of the truly great orators famous for his energy and stubborn public refusal to make peace until Adolf Hitler was crushed. He met President Franklin Roosevelt at sea before the entry of the United States into the war, twice addressed the US Congress (1941; 1942), twice went to Moscow (1942; 1944), visited battle fronts, and attended a long series of international conferences in Casablanca, Quebec, Cairo, Tehran, Yalta and Potsdam.
After the war Churchill became leader of the Labour opposition. As prime minister again from 1951 until his resignation in 1955, he ended nationalization of the steel and auto industries but maintained most other socialist measures instituted by the Labour government. In 1953 Churchill was knighted, and awarded the 1953 Nobel Prize in Literature for his writing and oratory. He retained a seat in Parliament until 1964, and refused a peerage which was offered.
Translate the following sentences into English.
1. ΠΠ³ΠΎ ΡΠ»Π°Π±ΡΠ΅ ΠΈ ΡΠΈΠ»ΡΠ½ΡΠ΅ ΡΡΠΎΡΠΎΠ½Ρ ΠΏΡΠΎΠΈΡΡ ΠΎΠ΄ΠΈΠ»ΠΈ ΠΈΠ· ΠΎΠ΄Π½ΠΎΠ³ΠΎ ΠΈΡΡΠΎΡΠ½ΠΈΠΊΠ° – ΠΆΠ΅Π»Π°Π½ΠΈΡ ΡΠΎΡ ΡΠ°Π½ΠΈΡΡ ΠΏΠΎΠ·ΠΈΡΠΈΠΈ ΠΠ΅Π»ΠΈΠΊΠΎΠ±ΡΠΈΡΠ°Π½ΠΈΠΈ ΠΊΠ°ΠΊ Π²Π΅Π»ΠΈΠΊΠΎΠΉ Π΄Π΅ΡΠΆΠ°Π²Ρ ΠΈ Π²Π΅Π»ΠΈΠΊΠΎΠΉ Π΄Π΅ΠΌΠΎΠΊΡΠ°ΡΠΈΡΠ΅ΡΠΊΠΎΠΉ ΡΡΡΠ°Π½Ρ.
2. Π§Π΅ΡΡΠΈΠ»Π»Ρ Π±ΡΠ» Π·Π½Π°ΠΌΠ΅Π½ΠΈΡ ΡΠ²ΠΎΠ΅ΠΉ ΠΆΠΈΠ·Π½Π΅Π½Π½ΠΎΠΉ ΡΠΈΠ»ΠΎΠΉ, ΡΠΈΠ»ΠΎΠΉ Ρ Π°ΡΠ°ΠΊΡΠ΅ΡΠ° ΠΈ ΡΠΌΠ΅Π»ΠΎΡΡΡΡ.
3. ΠΡΡΠ΅Ρ Π§Π΅ΡΡΠΈΠ»Π»Ρ ΠΎ ΠΏΡΠ΅Π±ΡΠ²Π°Π½ΠΈΠΈ Π² ΡΡΡΡΠΌΠ΅ Π±ΡΡΠΎΠ² Π²ΡΠ΄Π²ΠΈΠ½ΡΠ» Π΅Π³ΠΎ Π½Π° ΠΏΠ΅ΡΠ΅Π΄Π½ΠΈΠΉ ΠΏΠ»Π°Π½ ΡΡΠ΅Π΄ΠΈ Π±ΡΠΈΡΠ°Π½ΡΠΊΠΈΡ ΠΆΡΡΠ½Π°Π»ΠΈΡΡΠΎΠ².
4. ΠΠ½ Π±ΡΠ» ΠΈΠ·Π±ΡΠ°Π½ Π² ΠΏΠ°ΡΠ»Π°ΠΌΠ΅Π½Ρ ΠΎΡ ΠΊΠΎΠ½ΡΠ΅ΡΠ²Π°ΡΠΈΠ²Π½ΠΎΠΉ ΠΏΠ°ΡΡΠΈΠΈ, Π·Π°ΡΠ΅ΠΌ ΠΏΠ΅ΡΠ΅ΡΠ΅Π» Π² Π»ΠΈΠ±Π΅ΡΠ°Π»ΡΠ½ΡΡ ΠΏΠ°ΡΡΠΈΡ ΠΈ ΠΏΠΎΠ»ΡΡΠ°Π» Π½Π°Π·Π½Π°ΡΠ΅Π½ΠΈΡ Π½Π° ΡΠ°Π·Π½ΡΠ΅ Π΄ΠΎΠ»ΠΆΠ½ΠΎΡΡΠΈ: Π·Π°ΠΌΠ΅ΡΡΠΈΡΠ΅Π»Ρ ΠΌΠΈΠ½ΠΈΡΡΡΠ° ΡΠΎΡΠ³ΠΎΠ²Π»ΠΈ, ΠΌΠΈΠ½ΠΈΡΡΡΠ° Π²Π½ΡΡΡΠ΅Π½Π½ΠΈΡ Π΄Π΅Π», Π»ΠΎΡΠ΄Π° Π°Π΄ΠΌΠΈΡΠ°Π»ΡΠ΅ΠΉΡΡΠ²Π°, ΠΌΠΈΠ½ΠΈΡΡΡΠ° ΠΏΠΎ ΡΠ½Π°Π±ΠΆΠ΅Π½ΠΈΡ Π°ΡΠΌΠΈΠΈ, ΠΌΠΈΠ½ΠΈΡΡΡΠ° ΠΏΠΎ Π²ΠΎΠ΅Π½Π½ΡΠΌ Π΄Π΅ΠΉΡΡΠ²ΠΈΡΠΌ ΠΈ Π²ΠΎΠ΅Π½Π½ΠΎ-Π²ΠΎΠ·Π΄ΡΡΠ½ΠΎΠΌΡ ΡΠ»ΠΎΡΡ, ΠΈ, Π² ΠΊΠΎΠ½ΡΠ΅ ΠΊΠΎΠ½ΡΠΎΠ², ΠΏΡΠ΅ΠΌΡΠ΅Ρ-ΠΌΠΈΠ½ΠΈΡΡΡΠ°.
5. Π ΡΠ΅ΡΠ΅Π½ΠΈΠ΅ ΠΡΠΎΡΠΎΠΉ ΠΌΠΈΡΠΎΠ²ΠΎΠΉ Π²ΠΎΠΉΠ½Ρ Π§Π΅ΡΡΠΈΠ»Π»Ρ ΠΏΡΠ±Π»ΠΈΡΠ½ΠΎ ΠΎΡΠΊΠ°Π·Π°Π»ΡΡ Π·Π°ΠΊΠ»ΡΡΠΈΡΡ ΠΌΠΈΡΠ½ΡΠΉ Π΄ΠΎΠ³ΠΎΠ²ΠΎΡ Ρ Π½Π°ΡΠΈΡΡΡΠΊΠΎΠΉ ΠΠ΅ΡΠΌΠ°Π½ΠΈΠ΅ΠΉ, Π΅Π·Π΄ΠΈΠ» Π½Π° ΠΏΠ΅ΡΠ΅Π΄ΠΎΠ²ΡΡ ΠΈ Π±ΡΠ» ΡΡΠ°ΡΡΠ½ΠΈΠΊΠΎΠΌ ΠΌΠ½ΠΎΠ³ΠΈΡ ΠΌΠ΅ΠΆΠ΄ΡΠ½Π°ΡΠΎΠ΄Π½ΡΡ ΠΊΠΎΠ½ΡΠ΅ΡΠ΅Π½ΡΠΈΠΉ.
6. ΠΠ½ ΠΏΠΎΠ»ΠΎΠΆΠΈΠ» ΠΊΠΎΠ½Π΅Ρ Π½Π°ΡΠΈΠΎΠ½Π°Π»ΠΈΠ·Π°ΡΠΈΠΈ ΡΡΠ°Π»Π΅Π»ΠΈΡΠ΅ΠΉΠ½ΠΎΠΉ ΠΈ Π°Π²ΡΠΎΠΌΠΎΠ±ΠΈΠ»ΡΠ½ΠΎΠΉ ΠΏΡΠΎΠΌΡΡΠ»Π΅Π½Π½ΠΎΡΡΠΈ, Π½ΠΎ ΠΏΠΎΠ΄Π΄Π΅ΡΠΆΠΈΠ²Π°Π» Π΄ΡΡΠ³ΠΈΠ΅ ΡΠΎΡΠΈΠ°Π»ΠΈΡΡΠΈΡΠ΅ΡΠΊΠΈΠ΅ ΠΌΠ΅ΡΡ, ΠΏΡΠΈΠ½ΠΈΠΌΠ°Π΅ΠΌΡΠ΅ ΠΏΡΠ°Π²ΠΈΡΠ΅Π»ΡΡΡΠ²ΠΎΠΌ Π»Π΅ΠΉΠ±ΠΎΡΠΈΡΡΠΎΠ².
7. Π§Π΅ΡΡΠΈΠ»Π»Ρ Π±ΡΠ»ΠΎ ΠΏΡΠΈΡΠ²ΠΎΠ΅Π½ΠΎ ΡΡΡΠ°ΡΡΠΊΠΎΠ΅ Π·Π²Π°Π½ΠΈΠ΅, ΠΎΠ½ Π±ΡΠ» Π½Π°Π³ΡΠ°ΠΆΠ΄Π΅Π½ ΠΠΎΠ±Π΅Π»Π΅Π²ΡΠΊΠΎΠΉ ΠΏΡΠ΅ΠΌΠΈΠ΅ΠΉ Π² ΠΎΠ±Π»Π°ΡΡΠΈ Π»ΠΈΡΠ΅ΡΠ°ΡΡΡΡ ΠΈ ΠΏΠΎΠ»ΡΡΠΈΠ» ΠΏΡΠ΅Π΄Π»ΠΎΠΆΠ΅Π½ΠΈΠ΅ ΠΎ ΠΏΡΠΈΡΠ²ΠΎΠ΅Π½ΠΈΠΈ Π·Π²Π°Π½ΠΈΡ ΠΏΡΡΠ°, ΠΎΡ ΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΡΠΎΠ³ΠΎ ΠΎΠ½ ΠΎΡΠΊΠ°Π·Π°Π»ΡΡ.
8. ΠΠ½ Π±ΡΠ» Π»ΠΈΠ΄Π΅ΡΠΎΠΌ Π»Π΅ΠΉΠ±ΠΎΡΠΈΡΡΡΠΊΠΎΠΉ ΠΎΠΏΠΏΠΎΠ·ΠΈΡΠΈΠΈ, ΠΊΠΎΠ³Π΄Π° Ρ Π²Π»Π°ΡΡΠΈ Π½Π°Ρ ΠΎΠ΄ΠΈΠ»Π°ΡΡ ΠΊΠΎΠ½ΡΠ΅ΡΠ²Π°ΡΠΈΠ²Π½Π°Ρ ΠΏΠ°ΡΡΠΈΡ, Π·Π°ΡΠ΅ΠΌ ΡΠ½ΠΎΠ²Π° ΠΏΡΠ΅ΠΌΡΠ΅Ρ-ΠΌΠΈΠ½ΠΈΡΡΡΠΎΠΌ, Π²ΠΏΠ»ΠΎΡΡ Π΄ΠΎ ΡΡ ΠΎΠ΄Π° Π² ΠΎΡΡΡΠ°Π²ΠΊΡ Π² 1955 Π³ΠΎΠ΄Ρ, ΠΈ ΡΠΎΡ ΡΠ°Π½ΠΈΠ» ΠΌΠ΅ΡΡΠΎ Π² ΠΏΠ°ΡΠ»Π°ΠΌΠ΅Π½ΡΠ΅ Π΄ΠΎ 1964 Π³ΠΎΠ΄Π°.
1. Churchil’s weaknesses and strengths sprang from the same source – the will to maintain Britain as a great power and a great democracy.
2. Churchill was famous for his vitality, strength of character and boldness.
3. Churchill’s accounts of his imprisonment by the Boers raised him to the forefront of English journalists.
4. He was elected to Parliament as a Conservative, switched to the Liberal party and was appointed to several positions: undersecretary for the president of the Board of Trade, home secretary, Lord of the Admiralty, Minister of Munitions, Secretary of state for war and air, and, finally prime minister.
5. During W)rid W&r II Churchill publicly refused to make peace with nazi Germany, visited battle fronts and attended many international conferences.
6. He ended nationalization of the steel and auto industries but maintained other socialist measures instituted by the Labour government.
7. Churchill was knighted, awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature and offered a peerage which he refused.
8. He was the leader of the Labour opposition when the Conservative party was in power, then prime minister again until his resignation in 1955 and retained a seat in Parliament until 1964.
ΠΠ· ΠΏΠΎΡΠΎΠ±ΠΈΡ “ΠΠΠ. ΠΠ½Π³Π»ΠΈΠΉΡΠΊΠΈΠΉ ΡΠ·ΡΠΊ. Π£ΡΡΠ½ΡΠ΅ ΡΠ΅ΠΌΡ” ΠΠ°Π½ΠΈΠ½Π° Π. Π. (2010, 272Ρ.) – Part two. Additional topics.