Π’ΠΎΠΏΠΈΠΊ ΠΠΈΠ²ΠΎΠΏΠΈΡΡ ΡΠ°ΡΡΠΊΠ°Π·ΡΠ²Π°Π΅Ρ ΠΎ Π²ΠΈΠ΄Π΅ ΠΈΠ·ΠΎΠ±ΡΠ°Π·ΠΈΡΠ΅Π»ΡΠ½ΠΎΠ³ΠΎ ΠΈΡΠΊΡΡΡΡΠ²Π°, ΡΠ²ΡΠ·Π°Π½Π½ΠΎΠ³ΠΎ Ρ ΠΏΠ΅ΡΠ΅Π΄Π°ΡΠ΅ΠΉ Π·ΡΠΈΡΠ΅Π»ΡΠ½ΡΡ ΠΎΠ±ΡΠ°Π·ΠΎΠ² ΠΏΠΎΡΡΠ΅Π΄ΡΡΠ²ΠΎΠΌ Π½Π°Π½Π΅ΡΠ΅Π½ΠΈΡ ΠΊΡΠ°ΡΠΎΠΊ Π½Π° ΠΆΠ΅ΡΡΠΊΡΡ ΠΈΠ»ΠΈ Π³ΠΈΠ±ΠΊΡΡ ΠΏΠΎΠ²Π΅ΡΡ Π½ΠΎΡΡΡ. Π ΠΆΠΈΠ²ΠΎΠΏΠΈΡΠΈ ΠΏΡΠ΅ΠΎΠ±Π»Π°Π΄Π°ΡΡ ΡΠ°Π±ΠΎΡΡ, Π²ΡΠΏΠΎΠ»Π½Π΅Π½Π½ΡΠ΅ ΠΌΠ°ΡΠ»ΡΠ½ΡΠΌΠΈ ΠΊΡΠ°ΡΠΊΠ°ΠΌΠΈ, Π½ΠΎ ΠΌΠΎΠ³ΡΡ ΠΈΡΠΏΠΎΠ»ΡΠ·ΠΎΠ²Π°ΡΡΡΡ ΠΈ Π΄ΡΡΠ³ΠΈΠ΅ ΠΊΡΠ°ΡΠΈΡΠ΅Π»ΠΈ: ΡΠ΅ΠΌΠΏΠ΅ΡΠ°, Π°ΠΊΡΠΈΠ»ΠΎΠ²ΡΠ΅ ΠΊΡΠ°ΡΠΊΠΈ ΠΈ Π΄Ρ. ΠΠ°ΡΡΠΈΠ½Ρ ΠΏΠΈΡΡΡΡΡ Π² ΠΎΡΠ½ΠΎΠ²Π½ΠΎΠΌ Π½Π° Ρ ΠΎΠ»ΡΡΠ΅, Π½Π°ΡΡΠ½ΡΡΠΎΠΌ Π½Π° ΡΠ°ΠΌΡ ΠΈΠ»ΠΈ Π½Π°ΠΊΠ»Π΅Π΅Π½Π½ΠΎΠΌ Π½Π° ΠΊΠ°ΡΡΠΎΠ½. Π ΠΏΡΠΎΡΠ»ΠΎΠΌ ΡΠΈΡΠΎΠΊΠΎ ΠΏΡΠΈΠΌΠ΅Π½ΡΠ»ΠΈΡΡ Π΄Π΅ΡΠ΅Π²ΡΠ½Π½ΡΠ΅ Π΄ΠΎΡΠΊΠΈ, ΠΌΠΎΠ³ΡΡ ΠΈΡΠΏΠΎΠ»ΡΠ·ΠΎΠ²Π°ΡΡΡΡ Π»ΡΠ±ΡΠ΅ ΠΏΠ»ΠΎΡΠΊΠΈΠ΅ ΠΌΠ°ΡΠ΅ΡΠΈΠ°Π»Ρ. ΠΠΎΠ½ΡΠΌΠ΅Π½ΡΠ°Π»ΡΠ½Π°Ρ ΠΆΠΈΠ²ΠΎΠΏΠΈΡΡ (Π² ΠΠ³ΠΈΠΏΡΠ΅, ΠΡΠ΅Π²Π½Π΅ΠΉ ΠΡΠ΅ΡΠΈΠΈ ΠΈ ΡΡΠ΅Π΄Π½Π΅Π²Π΅ΠΊΠΎΠ²ΠΎΠΉ ΠΠ²ΡΠΎΠΏΠ΅) Π²ΡΠΏΠΎΠ»Π½ΡΠ΅ΡΡΡ Π½Π΅ΠΏΠΎΡΡΠ΅Π΄ΡΡΠ²Π΅Π½Π½ΠΎ Π½Π° ΡΡΠ΅Π½Π°Ρ ΠΈ ΠΏΠΎΡΠΎΠ»ΠΊΠ°Ρ Π·Π΄Π°Π½ΠΈΠΉ ΠΈ Π΄ΡΡΠ³ΠΈΡ ΡΠΎΠΎΡΡΠΆΠ΅Π½ΠΈΠΉ. Π ΠΏΡΠΎΡΠ»ΠΎΠΌ ΠΏΡΠ΅ΠΎΠ±Π»Π°Π΄Π°Π»Π° ΠΆΠΈΠ²ΠΎΠΏΠΈΡΡ Π²ΠΎΠ΄Π½ΡΠΌΠΈ ΠΊΡΠ°ΡΠΊΠ°ΠΌΠΈ ΠΏΠΎ ΡΡΡΠΎΠΉ ΡΡΡΠΊΠ°ΡΡΡΠΊΠ΅ β ΡΡΠ΅ΡΠΊΠ° (Π² ΠΡΠ°Π»ΠΈΠΈ). Π¦Π²Π΅ΡΠ½ΡΠ΅ ΠΈΠ·ΠΎΠ±ΡΠ°ΠΆΠ΅Π½ΠΈΡ Π½Π° Π±ΡΠΌΠ°Π³Π΅ (Π°ΠΊΠ²Π°ΡΠ΅Π»Ρ, Π³ΡΠ°ΡΡ, ΠΏΠ°ΡΡΠ΅Π»Ρ ΠΈ Π΄Ρ.) ΡΠ°ΡΡΠΌΠ°ΡΡΠΈΠ²Π°ΡΡΡΡ ΠΊΠ°ΠΊ ΠΆΠΈΠ²ΠΎΠΏΠΈΡΠ½ΡΠ΅. Π‘ΡΠ΅Π΄Π½Π΅Π²Π΅ΠΊΠΎΠ²ΡΡ ΠΆΠΈΠ²ΠΎΠΏΠΈΡΡ ΡΠΌΠ΅Π½ΠΈΠ»Π° ΡΠΏΠΎΡ Π° Π Π΅Π½Π΅ΡΡΠ°Π½ΡΠ°, Π·Π°ΡΠ΅ΠΌ Π±Π°ΡΠΎΠΊΠΊΠΎ, ΠΈΠΌΠΏΡΠ΅ΡΡΠΈΠΎΠ½ΠΈΠ·ΠΌ, Π½Π°ΡΡΠ΅Π½Π½Π°Ρ ΠΆΠΈΠ²ΠΎΠΏΠΈΡΡ, Π°Π±ΡΡΡΠ°ΠΊΡΠ½ΠΎΠ΅ ΠΈΡΠΊΡΡΡΡΠ²ΠΎ ΠΈ Ρ. Π΄. ΠΠΈΠ²ΠΎΠΏΠΈΡΡ ΡΠΎΡΠ΅ΡΠ°Π΅ΡΡΡ ΡΠΎ ΠΌΠ½ΠΎΠ³ΠΈΠΌΠΈ Π΄ΡΡΠ³ΠΈΠΌΠΈ Π²ΠΈΠ΄Π°ΠΌΠΈ ΠΈΡΠΊΡΡΡΡΠ²Π°, Π²ΠΊΠ»ΡΡΠ°Ρ ΡΠΊΡΠ»ΡΠΏΡΡΡΡ, Π°ΡΡ ΠΈΡΠ΅ΠΊΡΡΡΡ, ΠΈ, Π² ΡΠΎΠ²ΡΠ΅ΠΌΠ΅Π½Π½ΡΡ ΡΠΏΠΎΡ Ρ, ΡΠΎΡΠΎΠ³ΡΠ°ΡΠΈΡ.
Painting is direct application of pigment to a surface to produce by tones of color or of light and dark some representation or decorative arrangement of natural or imagined forms.
Materials and Techniques
Painters use a number of materials to produce the effects they need. These include the materials of the surface, or ground; the pigments employed; the binder, or medium, in which the color is mixed; and its diluting agent. Among the various media used by artists are fresco, watercolor, oil, distemper, gouache, tempera, and encaustic. In addition to these, painting properly embraces many other techniques ordinarily associated with drawing, a term that is often used to refer to the linear aspects of the same art. If painting and drawing are not always clearly distinguishable from each other, both are to be distinguished from the print (or work of graphic art), in which the design is not produced directly but is transferred from another surface to that which it decorates. While the print may be one of many identical works, the painting or drawing is always unique. Painting has been freely combined with many other arts, including sculpture, architecture, and, in the modern era, photography.
In ancient Greece and medieval Europe most buildings and sculptures were painted; nearly all of the ancient decoration has been lost but some works from Egypt have preserved their coloring and give us an insight into the importance such an art can assume. The art of painting in China was linked from the 1st cent. AD with the development of the Buddhist faith. Early Christian and then Byzantine artists established iconographic and stylistic prototypes in wall painting and manuscript illumination that remained the basis for Christian art (see iconography).
Highly spiritualized in concept, the medieval painting tradition gave way to a more worldly orientation with the development of Renaissance art. The murals of Giotto became a vehicle for the expression of new and living ideas and sentiments. At the height of the Renaissance a large proportion of the works were decorations of walls and altarpieces, which were necessarily conceived in terms of their part in a larger decorative whole and their appeal for a large public. The greatest masterpieces of Raphael and Michelangelo and of the Florentine masters are generally public works of this character. The same period also saw the rise of the separate easel painting and the first use of oil on canvas. Simultaneously are found the beginnings of genre and other secular themes and the elaboration of portraiture.
Basing their art on the technical contributions of the Renaissance, e. g., the study of perspective and anatomy, the baroque masters added a virtuosity of execution and a style of unparalleled drama. From the age of the rococo, painting tended in the direction of greater intimacy. It is noteworthy, for example, that many of the masterpieces of the 19th cent., and particularly of impressionism, are small easel paintings suitable for the private home. The same period saw the rise of the large public gallery with both temporary and permanent exhibitions, an institution greatly expanded in the 20th cent.
A reawakened interest in mural painting and the contributions of painting to such arts as the motion picture and video have led some to believe that a return to a greater emphasis on the public functions of the art is taking place. Such a view can find support in the notable influence of abstract painting in the fields of industrial and architectural design. This art also continues to enjoy undiminished popularity in the home and gallery. Painting has had a long and glorious world history as an independent art. From Giotto to Picasso and from Ma Yuan to Hokusai, painting has never ceased to produce great exponents who have expressed not merely the taste but the aspirations, the concepts of space, form, and color, and the philosophy of their respective periods.