Pollock’s early work was influenced by the Mexican muralists David Alfaro Siqueiros, and Diego Rivera. After visiting exhibitions of Pablo Picasso and Surrealist Art, his work became more symbolic. Pollock’s first solo show was held at Peggy Guggenheim’s Art of this Century Gallery (in New York) in 1943.
Pollock’s style changed dramatically beginning in 1947. He began painting with his (usually large) canvases placed on the floor, and developed his ‘pour’ technique. He used his brushes as sticks to drip paint, and the brush never touched the canvas. This was an origination of action painting. He changed the Western tradition of using an easel and brush, as well as moved away from use only of the hand and wrist – as he used his whole body to paint. Pollock was dubbed ‘Jack the Dripper’ due to his painting style.
This change in style and technique came from many influences. In the winter of 1947-48, Pollock published a commentary, called Possibilities, describing his new method: ‘My painting does not come from the easel I prefer to tack the unstretched canvas to the hard wall or the floor. I need the resistance of a hard surface. On the floor I am more at ease. I feel nearer, more part of the painting, since this way I can walk around it, work from the four sides and literally be in the painting. This is akin to the method of the Indian sand painters of the West. When I am in my painting, I’m not aware of what I’m doing. It is only after a sort of ‘get acquainted’ period that I see what I have been about. I have no fear of making changes, destroying the image, etc., because the painting has a life of its own. I try to let it come through. It is only when I lose contact with the painting that the result is a mess. Otherwise there is pure harmony, an easy give and take, and the painting comes out well/ Other influences on his ‘pour4 technique include the Mexican muralists mentioned above, and also Surrealist automatism.
When the first set of these paintings was exhibited in 1948 it was a sensation and a sell out. Pollock was able to take on a larger studio building and there produced the series of 6 paintings of 1950 for which he is most renowned. Pollock was profiled in Time Magazine as ‘the greatest living American artist’ in 1951. His 1952 painting of Blue Poles was sold for $2 million, which was then the highest price paid for a contemporary artwork, when it was bought by the National Gallery of Australia in 1973.
Translate the following sentences into English.
1. Π Π°Π½Π½Π΅Π΅ ΡΠ²ΠΎΡΡΠ΅ΡΡΠ²ΠΎ ΠΠΎΠ»Π»ΠΎΠΊΠ° ΠΈΡΠΏΡΡΠ°Π»ΠΎ Π²Π»ΠΈΡΠ½ΠΈΠ΅ ΡΠΎ ΡΡΠΎΡΠΎΠ½Ρ ΠΌΠ΅ΠΊΡΠΈΠΊΠ°Π½ΡΠΊΠΈΡ Ρ ΡΠ΄ΠΎΠΆΠ½ΠΈΠΊΠΎΠ²-ΠΌΠΎΠ½ΡΠΌΠ΅Π½ΡΠ°Π»ΠΈΡΡΠΎΠ²; ΠΏΠΎΠ·Π΄Π½Π΅Π΅ ΡΡΠ°Π»ΠΎ ΡΠΈΠΌΠ²ΠΎΠ»ΠΈΡΠ΅ΡΠΊΠΈΠΌ, Π° Π΅ΡΠ΅ ΠΏΠΎΠ·Π΄Π½Π΅Π΅ ΠΠΎΠ»Π»ΠΎΠΊ ΡΡΠ°Π» ΠΏΡΠΈΠΌΠ΅Π½ΡΡΡ ΡΠ΅Ρ Π½ΠΈΠΊΡ Π½Π°Π»ΠΈΠ²Π° ΠΊΡΠ°ΡΠΊΠΈ Π½Π° Ρ ΠΎΠ»ΡΡ, ΡΡΠΎ ΠΎΠ·Π½Π°ΡΠ°Π»ΠΎ Π²ΠΎΠ·Π½ΠΈΠΊΠ½ΠΎΠ²Π΅Π½ΠΈΠ΅ Π½Π°ΠΏΡΠ°Π²Π»Π΅Π½ΠΈΡ ΠΆΠΈΠ²ΠΎΠΏΠΈΡΠΈ, ΠΈΡΠΏΠΎΠ»ΡΠ·ΡΡΡΠΈΠΉ ΡΠ΅Ρ Π½ΠΎΠ»ΠΎΠ³ΠΈΡ ΡΠ°Π·Π±ΡΡΠ·Π³ΠΈΠ²Π°Π½ΠΈΡ ΠΊΡΠ°ΡΠΊΠΈ Π½Π° Ρ ΠΎΠ»ΡΡ.
2. ΠΠ½ ΠΈΠ·ΠΌΠ΅Π½ΠΈΠ» Π·Π°ΠΏΠ°Π΄Π½ΡΡ ΡΡΠ°Π΄ΠΈΡΠΈΡ ΠΈΡΠΏΠΎΠ»ΡΠ·ΠΎΠ²Π°Π½ΠΈΡ ΠΌΠΎΠ»ΡΠ±Π΅ΡΡΠ° ΠΈ ΠΊΠΈΡΡΠΈ, ΠΈ Π·Π° ΡΡΠΈΠ»Ρ ΠΆΠΈΠ²ΠΎΠΏΠΈΡΠΈ Π΅Π³ΠΎ ΡΡΠ°Π»ΠΈ Π½Π°Π·ΡΠ²Π°ΡΡ “ΠΠΆΠ΅ΠΊ-Π Π°Π·Π±ΡΡΠ·Π³ΠΈΠ²Π°ΡΠ΅Π»Ρ”.
3. ΠΡΠΈ Π½Π°ΠΏΠΈΡΠ°Π½ΠΈΠΈ ΠΊΠ°ΡΡΠΈΠ½Ρ Π΅ΠΌΡ Π½ΡΠΆΠ½ΠΎ Π±ΡΠ»ΠΎ ΡΠΎΠΏΡΠΎΡΠΈΠ²Π»Π΅Π½ΠΈΠ΅ ΡΠ²Π΅ΡΠ΄ΠΎΠΉ ΠΏΠΎΠ²Π΅ΡΡ Π½ΠΎΡΡΠΈ, ΡΡΠΎΠ±Ρ Π΄ΠΎΡΡΠΈΡΡ Π² ΠΆΠΈΠ²ΠΎΠΏΠΈΡΠΈ “ΡΠΈΡΡΠΎΠΉ Π³Π°ΡΠΌΠΎΠ½ΠΈΠΈ”.
4. ΠΠΎΠ³Π΄Π° Π±ΡΠ»Π° Π²ΡΡΡΠ°Π²Π»Π΅Π½Π° ΠΏΠ΅ΡΠ²Π°Ρ ΡΠ΅ΡΠΈΡ Π΅Π³ΠΎ ΠΊΠ°ΡΡΠΈΠ½, ΠΎΠ½ΠΈ Π²ΡΠ·Π²Π°Π»ΠΈ ΡΠ΅Π½ΡΠ°ΡΠΈΡ ΠΈ Π±ΡΠ»ΠΈ ΡΠ°ΡΠΏΡΠΎΠ΄Π°Π½Ρ, ΠΏΠΎΡΠ»Π΅ ΡΠ΅Π³ΠΎ ΠΎΠ½ Π½Π°ΠΏΠΈΡΠ°Π» ΡΠ²ΠΎΡ Π½Π°ΠΈΠ±ΠΎΠ»Π΅Π΅ Π·Π½Π°ΠΌΠ΅Π½ΠΈΡΡΡ ΡΠ΅ΡΠΈΡ ΠΈΠ· 6 ΠΊΠ°ΡΡΠΈΠ½.
5. ΠΠΎΠ»Π»ΠΎΠΊΠ° Π½Π°Π·ΡΠ²Π°Π»ΠΈ “Π²Π΅Π»ΠΈΡΠ°ΠΉΡΠΈΠΌ ΠΈΠ· ΡΠΎΠ²ΡΠ΅ΠΌΠ΅Π½Π½ΡΡ Π°ΠΌΠ΅ΡΠΈΠΊΠ°Π½ΡΠΊΠΈΡ Ρ ΡΠ΄ΠΎΠΆΠ½ΠΈΠΊΠΎΠ²”, ΠΈ Π΅Π³ΠΎ ΠΊΠ°ΡΡΠΈΠ½Ρ ΠΏΡΠΎΠ΄Π°Π²Π°Π»ΠΈΡΡ ΠΏΠΎ ΡΠ°ΠΌΡΠΌ Π²ΡΡΠΎΠΊΠΈΠΌ Π² ΡΠΎ Π²ΡΠ΅ΠΌΡ ΡΠ΅Π½Π°ΠΌ Π½Π° ΠΏΡΠΎΠΈΠ·Π²Π΅Π΄Π΅Π½ΠΈΡ ΡΠΎΠ²ΡΠ΅ΠΌΠ΅Π½Π½ΠΎΠ³ΠΎ ΠΈΡΠΊΡΡΡΡΠ²Π°.
1. Pollock’s early work was influenced by the Mexican muralists, later it became symbolic, and then he developed his ‘pour’ technique, which was an origination of action painting.
2. He changed the Western tradition of using an easel and a brush and was dubbed ‘Jack the Dripper’ due to his painting style.
3. For his painting, he needed the resistance of a hard surface to achieve pure harmony in his painting.
4. When the first set of his pictures was exhibited, there was a sensation and a sell-out, and reproduced his series of 6 pictures which is most renowned.
5. Pollock was named ‘the greatest living American artist’, and his paintings were sold at prices which then were the highest prices for contemporary artworks.
ΠΠ· ΠΏΠΎΡΠΎΠ±ΠΈΡ “ΠΠΠ. ΠΠ½Π³Π»ΠΈΠΉΡΠΊΠΈΠΉ ΡΠ·ΡΠΊ. Π£ΡΡΠ½ΡΠ΅ ΡΠ΅ΠΌΡ” ΠΠ°Π½ΠΈΠ½Π° Π. Π. (2010, 272Ρ.) – Part two. Additional topics.