What outstanding Russians would you tell your foreign friend about? What outstanding people of an English – speaking country do you admire? What made them famous?
The history of Russian science and culture abounds in great names in all fields of science and arts – the humanities, biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, music, dance, painting etc. Of all the famous Russian scientists, there are some whose contribution to the world science is the most significant one. Among them is Nikolai Yegorovich Zhukovsky (1847-1921), a famous name in the field of manned flight. He was a Russian scientist, founding father of modern aero – and hydrodynamics. Whereas contemporary scientists didn’t take the idea of human flight seriously, Zhukovsky was the first to undertake the study of airflow.
Another great name in the field of human flight was K. Tsiolkovsky, a rocket scientist and pioneer of cosmonautics. Firstly, he created the theory of space flight and is considered the father of human space travel. He was the first to calculate that a multistage rocket fuelled by liquid oxygen and hydrogen is required to leave the Earth. Among his works are designs of multistage boosters, space stations biological systems to provide food and oxygen for space colonies. Secondly, his works influenced and gave an impetus to the works of German and American scientists on space exploration, thus forming the foundation of the modern theory of space travel.
Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev (1834-1907) was a Russian chemist who is credited as being the primary creator of the first version of the periodic table of elements. Unlike other contributors to the table, Mendeleyev predicted the properties of elements yet to be discovered. As he attempted to classify the elements according to their chemical properties, he noticed patterns that led him to postulate his Periodic Table.
Another scientist who I believe contributed greatly to the world science is Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, a Russian physiologist and physician (1849-1936). He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for research pertaining to the digestive system. He is widely known for first describing the phenomenon now known as classical conditioning in his experiments with dogs. He established the basic laws for the establishment and extinction of what he called “conditional reflexes’ – i. e., reflex responses, like salivation, that only occurred conditional upon specific previous experiences of the animal.
The history of Russian literature and arts is full of outstanding people who contributed to the world’s artistic treasure-house. To name only a few, they are Pushkin, Dostoevsky, Tolstoy in literature, Savrasov, Repin, Serov, Vrubel and many others in arts.
Pushkin is popularly known to be the greatest Russian poet and writer of all times, and the founder of modern Russian literature. He is named the sun of Russian poetry’ and is known to have pioneered the use of vernacular speech in his poems and plays and created a style of storytelling, mixing drama, romance, and satire, associated with Russian literature ever since and greatly influencing Russian writers. Critics consider many of his works masterpieces.
One of the Russian writers whose name is known to most people is F. Dostoevsky, who was born in 1821 and died in 1881. He is considered by many to be a giant of Russian and world literature. Firstly, he is famous for his understanding of the human soul and his interest in sin and redemption. Secondly, he is famous for his powerful but humorless style.
Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (1828-1910) was a Russian novelist, social reformer, moral thinker. Tolstoy is widely known as one of the greatest of all novelists, particularly famous for his masterpieces War and Peace and Anna Karenina; the two books stand at the peak of realistic fiction. As a moral philosopher he was notable for his ideas which influenced such twentieth-century figures as Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King.
(For painters, see Additional Topics.)
Of many outstanding British people I admire Admiral Nelson, Sir Isaac Newton and Charles Darwin most.
Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson (1758-1805) was a British admiral famous for his participation in the Napoleonic Wars, most notably in the Battle of Trafalgar, where he lost his life. He became the greatest naval hero in the history of the United Kingdom and is one of the most famous naval commanders in world history. His biography by the poet Robert Southey appeared in 1813, while the wars were still being fought. He is honoured by the London landmark of Nelson’s Column, which stands in Trafalgar Square.
Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727) was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, inventor, who is regarded as one of the most influential scientists in history. Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion which formed the basis for classical mechanics. He was the first to show that the motion of bodies on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same natural laws. The unifying power of his laws was integral to the scientific revolution.
Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882) was a British naturalist who achieved lasting fame by convincing the scientists of the evolution and proposing the theory that this could be explained through natural selection. This theory is now considered the central theory in biology. Fully aware that others had been severely punished for such ‘heretical’ ideas, he only confided in his closest friends and continued his research. In recognition of Darwin’s contribution to the world’s science, he was buried in Aufestminster Abbey, close to Isaac Newton.
Translate the following sentences into English.
1. ΠΡΡΠΎΡΠΈΡ Π ΠΎΡΡΠΈΠΈ ΠΈΠ·ΠΎΠ±ΠΈΠ»ΡΠ΅Ρ Π²Π΅Π»ΠΈΠΊΠΈΠΌΠΈ ΠΈΠΌΠ΅Π½Π°ΠΌΠΈ Π²ΠΎ Π²ΡΠ΅Ρ ΠΎΠ±Π»Π°ΡΡΡΡ Π½Π°ΡΠΊΠΈ ΠΈ ΠΈΡΠΊΡΡΡΡΠ²Π°.
2. Π‘ΡΠ΅Π΄ΠΈ Π²ΡΠ΅Ρ ΠΈΠ·Π²Π΅ΡΡΠ½ΡΡ ΡΡΡΡΠΊΠΈΡ ΡΡΠ΅Π½ΡΡ Π΅ΡΡΡ Π½Π΅ΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΡΡΠ΅, ΡΠ΅ΠΉ Π²ΠΊΠ»Π°Π΄ Π² Π½Π°ΡΠΊΡ Π½Π°ΠΈΠ±ΠΎΠ»Π΅Π΅ Π·Π½Π°ΡΠΈΡΠ΅Π»Π΅Π½.
3. ΠΡΠΊΠΎΠ²ΡΠΊΠΈΠΉ Π±ΡΠ» ΠΎΡΠ½ΠΎΠ²Π°ΡΠ΅Π»Π΅ΠΌ ΡΠΎΠ²ΡΠ΅ΠΌΠ΅Π½Π½ΠΎΠΉ Π°ΡΡΠΎ – ΠΈ Π³ΠΈΠ΄ΡΠΎΠ΄ΠΈΠ½Π°ΠΌΠΈΠΊΠΈ.
4. Π¦ΠΈΠΎΠ»ΠΊΠΎΠ²ΡΠΊΠΈΠΉ Π±ΡΠ» ΡΡΠ΅Π½ΡΠΌ, ΡΠΏΠ΅ΡΠΈΠ°Π»ΠΈΠ·ΠΈΡΡΡΡΠΈΠΌΡΡ Π² ΠΎΠ±Π»Π°ΡΡΠΈ ΡΠ°ΠΊΠ΅Ρ ΠΈ ΠΏΠΈΠΎΠ½Π΅ΡΠΎΠΌ ΠΊΠΎΡΠΌΠΎΠ½Π°Π²ΡΠΈΠΊΠΈ, ΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΡΡΠΉ ΡΠΎΠ·Π΄Π°Π» ΡΠ΅ΠΎΡΠΈΡ ΠΏΠΎΠ»Π΅ΡΠΎΠ² Π² ΠΊΠΎΡΠΌΠΎΡ; ΠΎΠ½ ΡΠ°ΡΡΡΠΈΡΠ°Π», ΡΡΠΎ Π΄Π»Ρ ΡΠΎΠ³ΠΎ, ΡΡΠΎΠ±Ρ ΠΏΠΎΠΊΠΈΠ½ΡΡΡ ΠΠ΅ΠΌΠ»Ρ, Π½ΡΠΆΠ½Π° ΠΌΠ½ΠΎΠ³ΠΎΡΡΡΠΏΠ΅Π½ΡΠ°ΡΠ°Ρ ΡΠ°ΠΊΠ΅ΡΠ° Π½Π° ΠΆΠΈΠ΄ΠΊΠΎΠΌ ΠΊΠΈΡΠ»ΠΎΡΠΎΠ΄Π΅ ΠΈ Π²ΠΎΠ΄ΠΎΡΠΎΠ΄Π΅, ΡΠ°Π·ΡΠ°Π±ΠΎΡΠ°Π» ΠΏΡΠΎΠ΅ΠΊΡΡ ΡΠ°ΠΊΠ΅Ρ-Π½ΠΎΡΠΈΡΠ΅Π»Π΅ΠΉ ΠΈ ΠΊΠΎΡΠΌΠΈΡΠ΅ΡΠΊΠΈΡ ΡΡΠ°Π½ΡΠΈΠΉ, Π΅Π³ΠΎ ΡΠ°Π±ΠΎΡΡ Π΄Π°Π»ΠΈ ΡΠΎΠ»ΡΠΎΠΊ ΡΠ°Π±ΠΎΡΠ°ΠΌ Π½Π΅ΠΌΠ΅ΡΠΊΠΈΡ ΠΈ Π°ΠΌΠ΅ΡΠΈΠΊΠ°Π½ΡΠΊΠΈΡ ΡΡΠ΅Π½ΡΡ .
5. ΠΠ΅Π½Π΄Π΅Π»Π΅Π΅Π² Π±ΡΠ» ΡΡΡΡΠΊΠΈΠΌ Ρ ΠΈΠΌΠΈΠΊΠΎΠΌ, ΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΡΡΠΉ ΡΠ²Π»ΡΠ»ΡΡ ΠΎΡΠ½ΠΎΠ²Π½ΡΠΌ ΡΠΎΠ·Π΄Π°ΡΠ΅Π»Π΅ΠΌ ΠΠ΅ΡΠΈΠΎΠ΄ΠΈΡΠ΅ΡΠΊΠΎΠΉ ΡΠΈΡΡΠ΅ΠΌΡ ΡΠ»Π΅ΠΌΠ΅Π½ΡΠΎΠ², ΠΏΡΠ΅Π΄ΡΠΊΠ°Π·Π°Π²ΡΠΈΠΌ, ΡΠ°ΠΊΠΈΠΌ ΠΎΠ±ΡΠ°Π·ΠΎΠΌ, ΡΠ²ΠΎΠΉΡΡΠ²Π° ΡΠ»Π΅ΠΌΠ΅Π½ΡΠΎΠ² ΠΈ ΠΊΠ»Π°ΡΡΠΈΡΠΈΡΠΈΡΠΎΠ²Π°Π²ΡΠΈΠΌ ΠΈΡ Π² ΡΠΎΠΎΡΠ²Π΅ΡΡΡΠ²ΠΈΠΈ Ρ ΡΡΠΈΠΌΠΈ Ρ ΠΈΠΌΠΈΡΠ΅ΡΠΊΠΈΠΌΠΈ ΡΠ²ΠΎΠΉΡΡΠ²Π°ΠΌΠΈ.
6. ΠΡΡΠ³ΠΈΠΌ ΡΡΠ΅Π½ΡΠΌ, ΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΡΡΠΉ Π²Π½Π΅Ρ Π±ΠΎΠ»ΡΡΠΎΠΉ Π²ΠΊΠ»Π°Π΄ Π² ΠΌΠΈΡΠΎΠ²ΡΡ Π½Π°ΡΠΊΡ, Π±ΡΠ» ΠΠ°Π²Π»ΠΎΠ², ΡΡΡΡΠΊΠΈΠΉ ΡΠΈΠ·ΠΈΠΎΠ»ΠΎΠ³ ΠΈ Π²ΡΠ°Ρ, ΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΡΡΠΉ Π±ΡΠ» Π½Π°Π³ΡΠ°ΠΆΠ΄Π΅Π½ ΠΠΎΠ±Π΅Π»Π΅Π²ΡΠΊΠΎΠΉ ΠΏΡΠ΅ΠΌΠΈΠ΅ΠΉ Π² ΠΎΠ±Π»Π°ΡΡΠΈ ΡΠΈΠ·ΠΈΠΎΠ»ΠΎΠ³ΠΈΠΈ ΠΈ ΠΌΠ΅Π΄ΠΈΡΠΈΠ½Ρ.
7. ΠΠ½ Π²ΠΏΠ΅ΡΠ²ΡΠ΅ ΠΎΠΏΠΈΡΠ°Π» ΡΡΠ»ΠΎΠ²Π½ΠΎΠ΅ ΠΏΠΎΠ²Π΅Π΄Π΅Π½ΠΈΠ΅, ΡΡΡΠ°Π½ΠΎΠ²ΠΈΠ², ΡΠ°ΠΊΠΈΠΌ ΠΎΠ±ΡΠ°Π·ΠΎΠΌ, ΠΎΡΠ½ΠΎΠ²Π½ΡΠ΅ Π·Π°ΠΊΠΎΠ½Ρ ΡΡΠ»ΠΎΠ²Π½ΡΡ ΡΠ΅ΡΠ»Π΅ΠΊΡΠΎΠ².
8. ΠΠ½ΠΎΠ³ΠΈΠ΅ ΡΡΡΡΠΊΠΈΠ΅ ΠΏΠΈΡΠ°ΡΠ΅Π»ΠΈ Π²Π½Π΅ΡΠ»ΠΈ Π²ΠΊΠ»Π°Π΄ Π² ΠΌΠΈΡΠΎΠ²ΡΡ Ρ ΡΠ΄ΠΎΠΆΠ΅ΡΡΠ²Π΅Π½Π½ΡΡ ΡΠΎΠΊΡΠΎΠ²ΠΈΡΠ½ΠΈΡΡ.
9. ΠΡΡΠΊΠΈΠ½ ΡΠΈΡΠΎΠΊΠΎ ΠΈΠ·Π²Π΅ΡΡΠ΅Π½ ΠΊΠ°ΠΊ ΠΎΡΠ½ΠΎΠ²Π°ΡΠ΅Π»Ρ ΡΡΡΡΠΊΠΎΠΉ Π»ΠΈΡΠ΅ΡΠ°ΡΡΡΡ, Π²ΠΏΠ΅ΡΠ²ΡΠ΅ ΠΈΡΠΏΠΎΠ»ΡΠ·ΠΎΠ²Π°Π²ΡΠΈΠΉ ΡΠ°Π·Π³ΠΎΠ²ΠΎΡΠ½ΡΡ ΡΠ΅ΡΡ ΠΈ ΡΠΎΠ·Π΄Π°Π²ΡΠΈΠΉ ΡΠ²ΠΎΠΉ ΡΡΠΈΠ»Ρ ΠΏΠΎΠ²Π΅ΡΡΠ²ΠΎΠ²Π°Π½ΠΈΡ; Π΅Π³ΠΎ Π½Π°Π·ΡΠ²Π°ΡΡ “ΡΠΎΠ»Π½ΡΠ΅ΠΌ ΡΡΡΡΠΊΠΎΠΉ ΠΏΠΎΡΠ·ΠΈΠΈ”.
10. ΠΠΎΡΡΠΎΠ΅Π²ΡΠΊΠΈΠΉ – Π³ΠΈΠ³Π°Π½Ρ ΡΡΡΡΠΊΠΎΠΉ ΠΈ ΠΌΠΈΡΠΎΠ²ΠΎΠΉ Π»ΠΈΡΠ΅ΡΠ°ΡΡΡΡ, ΠΈΠ·Π²Π΅ΡΡΠ½ΡΠΉ ΡΠ²ΠΎΠΈΠΌ ΠΏΠΎΠ½ΠΈΠΌΠ°Π½ΠΈΠ΅ΠΌ ΡΠ΅Π»ΠΎΠ²Π΅ΡΠ΅ΡΠΊΠΎΠΉ Π΄ΡΡΠΈ ΠΈ ΠΈΠ½ΡΠ΅ΡΠ΅ΡΠΎΠΌ ΠΊ Π³ΡΠ΅Ρ Ρ ΠΈ ΡΠ°ΡΠΊΠ°ΡΠ½ΠΈΡ, Π° ΡΠ°ΠΊΠΆΠ΅ ΡΠ²ΠΎΠΈΠΌ ΡΡΠΊΠΈΠΌ ΡΡΠΈΠ»Π΅ΠΌ.
11. Π’ΠΎΠ»ΡΡΠΎΠΉ – ΡΡΠΎ ΡΡΡΡΠΊΠΈΠΉ ΠΏΠΈΡΠ°ΡΠ΅Π»Ρ-ΡΠΎΠΌΠ°Π½ΠΈΡΡ, ΡΠΎΡΠΈΠ°Π»ΡΠ½ΡΠΉ ΡΠ΅ΡΠΎΡΠΌΠ°ΡΠΎΡ ΠΈ ΠΌΡΡΠ»ΠΈΡΠ΅Π»Ρ-ΠΌΠΎΡΠ°Π»ΠΈΡΡ, ΠΈΠ·Π²Π΅ΡΡΠ½ΡΠΉ ΠΊΠ°ΠΊ ΠΎΠ΄ΠΈΠ½ ΠΈΠ· Π²Π΅Π»ΠΈΡΠ°ΠΉΡΠΈΡ ΠΏΠΈΡΠ°ΡΠ΅Π»Π΅ΠΉ, ΡΡΠΈ ΠΊΠ½ΠΈΠ³ΠΈ ΡΠ²Π»ΡΡΡΡΡ Π²Π΅ΡΡΠΈΠ½Π°ΠΌΠΈ ΡΠ΅Π°Π»ΠΈΡΡΠΈΡΠ΅ΡΠΊΠΎΠΉ Ρ ΡΠ΄ΠΎΠΆΠ΅ΡΡΠ²Π΅Π½Π½ΠΎΠΉ Π»ΠΈΡΠ΅ΡΠ°ΡΡΡΡ.
12. ΠΠ΅Π»ΡΡΠΎΠ½ ΠΈΠ·Π²Π΅ΡΡΠ΅Π½ ΡΠ²ΠΎΠΈΠΌ ΡΡΠ°ΡΡΠΈΠ΅ΠΌ Π² Π²ΠΎΠΉΠ½Π°Ρ Ρ ΠΠ°ΠΏΠΎΠ»Π΅ΠΎΠ½ΠΎΠΌ ΠΈ ΡΠ²Π»ΡΠ΅ΡΡΡ ΠΎΠ΄Π½ΠΈΠΌ ΠΈΠ· ΡΠ°ΠΌΡΡ ΠΈΠ·Π²Π΅ΡΡΠ½ΡΡ ΠΊΠΎΠΌΠ°Π½Π΄ΡΡΡΠΈΡ Π²ΠΎΠ΅Π½Π½ΠΎ-ΠΌΠΎΡΡΠΊΠΈΠΌ ΡΠ»ΠΎΡΠΎΠΌ Π² ΠΌΠΈΡΠΎΠ²ΠΎΠΉ ΠΈΡΡΠΎΡΠΈΠΈ.
13. ΠΡΡΡΠΎΠ½ Π±ΡΠ» Π°Π½Π³Π»ΠΈΠΉΡΠΊΠΈΠΌ ΡΠΈΠ·ΠΈΠΊΠΎΠΌ, ΠΌΠ°ΡΠ΅ΠΌΠ°ΡΠΈΠΊΠΎΠΌ, Π°ΡΡΡΠΎΠ½ΠΎΠΌΠΎΠΌ ΠΈ ΠΈΠ·ΠΎΠ±ΡΠ΅ΡΠ°ΡΠ΅Π»Π΅ΠΌ, ΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΡΡΠΉ ΠΎΠΏΠΈΡΠ°Π» Π²ΡΠ΅ΠΌΠΈΡΠ½ΠΎΠ΅ ΡΡΠ³ΠΎΡΠ΅Π½ΠΈΠ΅ ΠΈ ΡΡΠΈ Π·Π°ΠΊΠΎΠ½Π° Π΄Π²ΠΈΠΆΠ΅Π½ΠΈΡ.
14. ΠΠ°ΡΠ²ΠΈΠ½ Π±ΡΠ» Π±ΡΠΈΡΠ°Π½ΡΠΊΠΈΠΌ Π΅ΡΡΠ΅ΡΡΠ²ΠΎΠΈΡΠΏΡΡΠ°ΡΠ΅Π»Π΅ΠΌ, ΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΡΡΠΉ ΡΡΠ°Π» Π·Π½Π°ΠΌΠ΅Π½ΠΈΡΡΠΌ, ΡΠ±Π΅Π΄ΠΈΠ² ΡΡΠ΅Π½ΡΡ Π² ΡΡΡΠ΅ΡΡΠ²ΠΎΠ²Π°Π½ΠΈΠΈ ΡΠ²ΠΎΠ»ΡΡΠΈΠΈ ΠΈ Π΅ΡΡΠ΅ΡΡΠ²Π΅Π½Π½ΠΎΠ³ΠΎ ΠΎΡΠ±ΠΎΡΠ°.
1. The history of Russia abounds in great names in all fields of science and arts.
2. Of all the famous Russian scientists, there are some whose contribution to science is the most significant one.
3. Zhukovsky was the founding father of modern aero – and hydrodynamics.
4. Tsiolkovsky was a rockt scientist and pioneer of cosmonautics who created the theory of space travel, he calculated that a multistage rocket fuelled by liquid oxygen and hydrogen is required to leave the Earth, designed multistage boosters and space stations; his works gave an impetus to the works of German and American scientists.
5. Mendeleyev was a Russian chemist who was the primary creator of the periodic table of elements, thus predicting the properties of elements and classifying them according to their chemical properties.
6. Another scientist who contributed greatly to the world science was Pavlov, a Russian physiologist and physician who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine.
7. He first described classical conditioning, that is established basic laws for conditional reflexes.
8. A lot of Russian writers have contributed to the world’s artistic treasure-house.
9. Pushkin is popularly known to be the founder of modern Russian literature, to have pioneered the use of vernacular speech; he created his own style of storytelling, and is named ‘the sun of Russian poetry’.
10. Dostoevsky is a giant of Russian and world literature, famous for understanding of the human soul and his interest in sin and redemption, as well as for his powerful style.
11. Tolstoy is a Russian novelist, social reformer and moral thinker known as one of the greatest of all novelists whose books stand at the peak of realistic fiction.
12. Nelson is famous for his participation in the Napoleonic wars and is one of the most famous naval commanders in world history.
13. Newton was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer and inventor who described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion.
14. Darwin was a British naturalist who achieved fame by convincing the scientists of the existence of evolution and natural selection.
ΠΠ· ΠΏΠΎΡΠΎΠ±ΠΈΡ “ΠΠΠ. ΠΠ½Π³Π»ΠΈΠΉΡΠΊΠΈΠΉ ΡΠ·ΡΠΊ. Π£ΡΡΠ½ΡΠ΅ ΡΠ΅ΠΌΡ” ΠΠ°Π½ΠΈΠ½Π° Π. Π. (2010, 272Ρ.) – Part one. English examination topics. Forms 9/11.