What achievements of your country are you proud of?
Russia can take pride in numerous achievements and developments in many fields. Russian science, art and literature have been abundant in great names for centuries, and the country has been regarded as a great power playing an important role in the world’s history at least since the reign of Peter the Great. There are some achievements, though, which are usually associated with Russia and which I am proud of most.
The first one is Russia’s contribution to space exploration. The theory of space exploration was created in the USSR before the Second World War by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky. Under the direction of the designer and engineer Sergei Korolev a liquid-fuelled missile R-7 Semyorka was built. It was an intercontinental ballistic missile and an excellent basis for a space launch vehicle. Launching the first satellite Sputnik 1 on the 4th of 1957 immediately became a sensation the world over.
Russia could boast many firsts in space travel. Among the most important ones are launching the R-7 Semyorka, launching the first man-made satellite Sputnik 1 into the Earth orbit, sending the first animal to enter orbit in space, the first manned flight by Yuri Gagarin on board Vostok, the first dual manned flight and approach in space, the first woman in space, Valentina Tereshkova on Vostok 6, first docking between two manned craft in Earth orbit and exchange of crews, taking the first probe on the Moon, the first images of the Moon’s far side, the first robotic space rover Lunokhod /, the first space station Salyut 7 (1971), the first woman to walk in space, Svetlana Savitskaya in 1984, the first crew to spend over one year in space (1987), the first permanently manned space station Mir which orbited the Earth from 1986 until 2001, the first space satellite launched in 1998 from a submarine.
The second thing I admire is Russian classical music which is famous all over the world for the complex harmony it offers, Russia has a long history of classical music. The first important Russian composer was Mikhail Glinka (1804-1857) who added religious and folk elements to classical compositions, composing operas like Ruslan and Lyudmila and Ivan Susanin which were distinctively Russian yet based on the Italian tradition. Glinka and the composers who made up The Mighty Handful after him (Rimsky-Korsakov, Mussorgsky, Balakirev, Borodin and Cesar Cui) were often influenced by Russian folk music and tales. Among the Mighty Handful’s most notable compositions were the operas The Snow Maiden, Sadko, Boris Godunov, Prince Igor and Khovanshchina, and the symphonic suite Scheherazade.
Other prominent Russian composers include Tchaikovsky, Rachmaninoff, and in the 20th century Stravinsky, Prokofiev, Scriabin and Shostakovich. Of these, Tchaikovsky remains the most well-known outside Russia, and his fame as the country’s most famous composer is unquestioned. He is best known for ballets like Swan Lake and The Nutcracker.
The third thing I admire is Russian classical literature universally known for its psychological depth and powerful style. Many prose writers and poets all over the world have been influenced by the giants of Russian classical literature like Pushkin, Tolstoy, Dostoevsky, Chekhov, to name only a few. (For Russian writers, see ‘Outstanding People’ and Additional Topics.)
Translate the following sentences into English.
1. Π ΡΡΡΠΊΠΈΠ΅ Π³ΠΎΡΠ΄ΡΡΡΡ ΠΌΠ½ΠΎΠ³ΠΈΠΌΠΈ Π΄ΠΎΡΡΠΈΠΆΠ΅Π½ΠΈΡΠΌΠΈ Π² Π½Π°ΡΠΊΠ΅, ΠΈΡΠΊΡΡΡΡΠ²Π΅ ΠΈ Π»ΠΈΡΠ΅ΡΠ°ΡΡΡΠ΅.
2. ΠΠ°ΡΠΊΠ° ΠΈ ΠΈΡΠΊΡΡΡΡΠ²ΠΎ Π ΠΎΡΡΠΈΠΈ ΠΈΠ·ΠΎΠ±ΠΈΠ»ΠΎΠ²Π°Π»ΠΈ Π²Π΅Π»ΠΈΠΊΠΈΠΌΠΈ ΠΈΠΌΠ΅Π½Π°ΠΌΠΈ Π² ΡΠ΅ΡΠ΅Π½ΠΈΠ΅ ΠΌΠ½ΠΎΠ³ΠΈΡ Π²Π΅ΠΊΠΎΠ², Π° ΡΡΡΠ°Π½Π° ΡΡΠΈΡΠ°Π»Π°ΡΡ Π²ΠΎ Π²ΡΠ΅ΠΌ ΠΌΠΈΡΠ΅ Π²Π΅Π»ΠΈΠΊΠΎΠΉ Π΄Π΅ΡΠΆΠ°Π²ΠΎΠΉ, ΠΎΠ΄Π½Π°ΠΊΠΎ ΠΌΠ½ΠΎΠ³ΠΈΠ΅ Π»ΡΠ΄ΠΈ ΠΎΡΠΎΠ±Π΅Π½Π½ΠΎ Π°ΡΡΠΎΡΠΈΠΈΡΡΡΡ Ρ Π ΠΎΡΡΠΈΠ΅ΠΉ Π½Π΅ΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΡΡΠ΅ Π΅Π΅ Π΄ΠΎΡΡΠΈΠΆΠ΅Π½ΠΈΡ.
3. Π ΠΎΡΠ²ΠΎΠ΅Π½ΠΈΠΈ ΠΊΠΎΡΠΌΠΎΡΠ° Π ΠΎΡΡΠΈΡ ΠΌΠΎΠΆΠ΅Ρ Π³ΠΎΡΠ΄ΠΈΡΡΡΡ ΠΌΠ½ΠΎΠ³ΠΈΠΌΠΈ ΠΈΠ½Π½ΠΎΠ²Π°ΡΠΈΡΠΌΠΈ, ΡΠ°ΠΌΡΠ΅ Π²Π°ΠΆΠ½ΡΠ΅ ΡΡΠ΅Π΄ΠΈ ΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΡΡΡ : Π·Π°ΠΏΡΡΠΊ ΠΏΠ΅ΡΠ²ΠΎΠ³ΠΎ ΠΈΡΠΊΡΡΡΡΠ²Π΅Π½Π½ΠΎΠ³ΠΎ ΡΠΏΡΡΠ½ΠΈΠΊΠ° ΠΠ΅ΠΌΠ»ΠΈ Π½Π° Π΅Π΅ ΠΎΡΠ±ΠΈΡΡ, ΠΏΠ΅ΡΠ²ΡΠΉ Π·Π°ΠΏΡΡΠΊ ΠΊΠΎΡΠΌΠΈΡΠ΅ΡΠΊΠΎΠ³ΠΎ ΠΊΠΎΡΠ°Π±Π»Ρ Ρ ΠΆΠΈΠ²ΠΎΡΠ½ΡΠΌ Π½Π° Π±ΠΎΡΡΡ, ΠΏΠ΅ΡΠ²ΡΠΉ ΠΏΠΈΠ»ΠΎΡΠΈΡΡΠ΅ΠΌΡΠΉ ΠΏΠΎΠ»Π΅Ρ, ΡΠ±Π»ΠΈΠΆΠ΅Π½ΠΈΠ΅ ΠΊΠΎΡΠ°Π±Π»Π΅ΠΉ Π² ΠΊΠΎΡΠΌΠΎΡΠ΅, Π²Π·ΡΡΠΈΠ΅ ΠΏΠ΅ΡΠ²ΡΡ ΠΎΠ±ΡΠ°Π·ΡΠΎΠ² Π»ΡΠ½Π½ΠΎΠΉ ΠΏΠΎΡΠ²Ρ, ΠΏΠ΅ΡΠ²ΡΠ΅ ΡΠΎΡΠΎΠ³ΡΠ°ΡΠΈΠΈ ΡΠ΅ΠΌΠ½ΠΎΠΉ ΡΡΠΎΡΠΎΠ½Ρ ΠΡΠ½Ρ ΠΈ ΠΌΠ½ΠΎΠ³ΠΈΠ΅ Π΄ΡΡΠ³ΠΎΠ΅.
4. Π ΡΡΡΠΊΠ°Ρ ΠΊΠ»Π°ΡΡΠΈΡΠ΅ΡΠΊΠ°Ρ ΠΌΡΠ·ΡΠΊΠ° ΠΈΠ·Π²Π΅ΡΡΠ½Π° Π²ΠΎ Π²ΡΠ΅ΠΌ ΠΌΠΈΡΠ΅ ΡΠ²ΠΎΠ΅ΠΉ ΡΠ»ΠΎΠΆΠ½ΠΎΠΉ Π³Π°ΡΠΌΠΎΠ½ΠΈΠ΅ΠΉ ΠΈ ΠΈΠΌΠ΅Π΅Ρ Π΄ΠΎΠ»Π³ΡΡ ΠΈΡΡΠΎΡΠΈΡ.
5. ΠΠ°ΠΈΠ±ΠΎΠ»Π΅Π΅ ΠΈΠ·Π²Π΅ΡΡΠ½ΡΠ΅ ΡΡΡΡΠΊΠΈΠ΅ ΠΊΠΎΠΌΠΏΠΎΠ·ΠΈΡΠΎΡΡ-ΠΊΠ»Π°ΡΡΠΈΠΊΠΈ – ΡΡΠΎ ΠΠ»ΠΈΠ½ΠΊΠ°, ΠΡΡΠΎΡΠ³ΡΠΊΠΈΠΉ, ΠΠΎΡΠΎΠ΄ΠΈΠ½, Π§Π°ΠΉΠΊΠΎΠ²ΡΠΊΠΈΠΉ.
6. Π§Π°ΠΉΠΊΠΎΠ²ΡΠΊΠΈΠΉ ΠΎΡΡΠ°Π΅ΡΡΡ ΡΠ°ΠΌΡΠΌ Π·Π½Π°ΠΌΠ΅Π½ΠΈΡΡΠΌ Π·Π° ΠΏΡΠ΅Π΄Π΅Π»Π°ΠΌΠΈ Π ΠΎΡΡΠΈΠΈ ΡΡΡΡΠΊΠΈΠΌ ΠΊΠΎΠΌΠΏΠΎΠ·ΠΈΡΠΎΡΠΎΠΌ, ΠΎΠ½ ΠΈΠ·Π²Π΅ΡΡΠ΅Π½ ΡΠ²ΠΎΠΈΠΌΠΈ Π±Π°Π»Π΅ΡΠ°ΠΌΠΈ, Π° ΡΠ»Π°Π²Π° Π΅Π³ΠΎ Π½Π΅ΡΠΎΠΌΠ½Π΅Π½Π½Π°.
1. Russians take pride in many achievements and developments in science, art, and literature.
2. Russia’s science and art have been abundant in great names for centuries, and the country has been regarded as a great power worldwide, but some achievements are associated with Russia by most people.
3. In space exploration, Russia can boast many firsts, the most important ones are launching the first man-made satellite into the Earth orbit, sending the first animal to enter orbit in space, the first manned flight, approach in space, taking the first probe on the Moon, the first images of the Moon’s far side and many others.
4. Russian classical music is famous all over the world for the complex harmony it offers and has a long history.
5. The most important Russian classical music composers are Glinka, Musorgsky, Borodin, Tchaikovsky.
6. Tchaikovsky remains the most well-known Russian composer outside Russia, he is known for his ballets and his fame is unquestioned.
ΠΠ· ΠΏΠΎΡΠΎΠ±ΠΈΡ “ΠΠΠ. ΠΠ½Π³Π»ΠΈΠΉΡΠΊΠΈΠΉ ΡΠ·ΡΠΊ. Π£ΡΡΠ½ΡΠ΅ ΡΠ΅ΠΌΡ” ΠΠ°Π½ΠΈΠ½Π° Π. Π. (2010, 272Ρ.) – Part one. English examination topics. Forms 9/11.