A profound psychologist and philosopher, Dostoyevsky depicted with remarkable insight the depth and complexity of the human soul. His powerful though generally humorless narrative style, his understanding of the intricacies of character, especially the pathological conscience, and his interest in sin and redemption made him a giant among novelists.
Dostoyevsky was born and raised in Moscow. His father, a military surgeon and an alcoholic of despotic temperament, was brutally killed by his own serfs. This event haunted Dostoyevsky all his life and perhaps accounts in part for the preoccupation with murder and guilt in his writings. Dostoyevsky attended military engineering school in St. Petersburg but soon abandoned this career for writing.
His first published work, Poor Folk (1846), which brought him immediate critical and public recognition, reveals his characteristic compassion for the downtrodden. At about this time Dostoyevsky became involved with a group of radical Utopians. The discovery of their illegal printing press brought about their arrest. Dostoyevsky was sentenced to four years in a Siberian penal colony. During this period he suffered great physical and mental pain, including repeated attacks of epilepsy. He abandoned his belief in the liberal, atheistic ideologies of Western Europe and turned wholeheartedly to religion and to the belief that Orthodox Russia was destined to be the spiritual leader of the world. After several years of obligatory military service in Siberia, he was allowed to return to St. Petersburg.
Dostoyevsky joined his beloved brother Mikhail in editing the magazine Time, which serialized The Insulted and The Injured (1861 -1862) and the record of his experience in the penal colony, The House of the Dead (1862). Notes from the Underground (1864), a detailed study of neurotic suffering, began the greatest period of Dostoyevsky’s literary career. Crime and Punishment, a brilliant portrait of sin, remorse, and redemption through sacrifice, followed in 1866. His next novel, The Idiot (1868), concerns a Christ figure, a meek and noble man whose effect on those around him is tragic. The Possessed (1871-1872) is a violent denunciation of the leftists and revolutionaries that Dostoyevsky had previously admired. This theme is central to the enormously complex plot and character development of his masterpiece, The Brothers Karamazov (1879-1880), generally thought to be one of the finest novels ever written.
Dostoyevsky died of a lung hemorrhage complicated by an attack of epilepsy.
Translate the following sentences into English.
1. ΠΠΎΡΡΠΎΠ΅Π²ΡΠΊΠΈΠΉ Π·Π½Π°ΠΌΠ΅Π½ΠΈΡ ΠΏΡΠΎΠ½ΠΈΠΊΠ½ΠΎΠ²Π΅Π½Π½ΡΠΌ ΠΏΡΠΈΡ ΠΎΠ»ΠΎΠ³ΠΈΡΠ΅ΡΠΊΠΈΠΌ Π°Π½Π°Π»ΠΈΠ·ΠΎΠΌ Π³Π»ΡΠ±ΠΎΠΊΠΎΠΉ ΠΈ ΡΠ»ΠΎΠΆΠ½ΠΎΠΉ ΡΠ΅Π»ΠΎΠ²Π΅ΡΠ΅ΡΠΊΠΎΠΉ Π΄ΡΡΠΈ.
2. ΠΠ½ ΠΏΠΎΠ½ΠΈΠΌΠ°Π» ΡΠΎΠ½ΠΊΠΎΡΡΠΈ Ρ Π°ΡΠ°ΠΊΡΠ΅ΡΠ° ΠΈ ΠΎΡΠΎΠ±Π΅Π½Π½ΠΎ ΠΏΠ°ΡΠΎΠ»ΠΎΠ³ΠΈΡΠ΅ΡΠΊΠΎΠ³ΠΎ ΡΠΎΠ·Π½Π°Π½ΠΈΡ.
3. ΠΠ½ ΡΠ°ΠΊΠΆΠ΅ Π·Π½Π°ΠΌΠ΅Π½ΠΈΡ Π²Π½ΠΈΠΌΠ°Π½ΠΈΠ΅ΠΌ, ΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΡΠΎΠ΅ ΠΎΠ½ ΠΏΡΠΎΡΠ²Π»ΡΠ» Π² ΡΠ²ΠΎΠΈΡ ΠΏΡΠΎΠΈΠ·Π²Π΅Π΄Π΅Π½ΠΈΡΡ ΠΊ ΡΠ±ΠΈΠΉΡΡΠ²Ρ ΠΈ ΠΏΡΠ΅ΡΡΡΠΏΠ»Π΅Π½ΠΈΡ (Π²ΠΈΠ½Π΅), Π³ΡΠ΅Ρ Ρ ΠΈ ΡΠ°ΡΠΊΠ°ΡΠ½ΠΈΡ.
4. ΠΠ³ΠΎ ΠΊΠ½ΠΈΠ³ΠΈ ΠΎΡΡΠ°ΠΆΠ°ΡΡ ΡΠΎΡΡΠ²ΡΡΠ²ΠΈΠ΅ ΠΊ ΡΠ³Π½Π΅ΡΠ΅Π½Π½ΡΠΌ ΠΈ ΡΠ°ΡΡΠΎ ΠΏΡΠ΅Π΄ΡΡΠ°Π²Π»ΡΡΡ ΠΈΠ· ΡΠ΅Π±Ρ ΠΏΠΎΠ΄ΡΠΎΠ±Π½ΡΠΉ ΠΎΡΡΠ΅Ρ ΠΎ ΠΌΠΎΡΠ°Π»ΡΠ½ΡΡ ΡΡΡΠ°Π΄Π°Π½ΠΈΡΡ .
5. ΠΠ½ ΡΠ°ΡΡΠΎ ΡΡΡΠ°Π΄Π°Π» ΠΎΡ ΡΠΈΠ·ΠΈΡΠ΅ΡΠΊΠΎΠΉ Π±ΠΎΠ»ΠΈ ΠΈ ΠΏΡΠΈΡ ΠΈΡΠ΅ΡΠΊΠΈΠΉ Π±ΠΎΠ»Π΅Π·Π½Π΅ΠΉ, Π² ΡΠΎΠΌ ΡΠΈΡΠ»Π΅ ΠΎΡ ΠΏΡΠΈΡΡΡΠΏΠΎΠ² ΡΠΏΠΈΠ»Π΅ΠΏΡΠΈΠΈ.
6. ΠΠ»Ρ Π΅Π³ΠΎ ΠΊΠ½ΠΈΠ³ Ρ Π°ΡΠ°ΠΊΡΠ΅ΡΠ½ΠΎ ΡΠ»ΠΎΠΆΠ½ΠΎΠ΅ ΡΠ°Π·Π²ΠΈΡΠΈΠ΅ ΡΡΠΆΠ΅ΡΠ° ΠΈ Ρ Π°ΡΠ°ΠΊΡΠ΅ΡΠΎΠ².
7. ΠΠΎΡΡΠΎΠ΅Π²ΡΠΊΠΈΠΉ ΠΈΠ·Π΄Π°Π²Π°Π» ΠΆΡΡΠ½Π°Π», ΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΡΡΠΉ ΠΏΠ΅ΡΠ°ΡΠ°Π» Π΅Π³ΠΎ ΠΏΡΠΎΠΈΠ·Π²Π΅Π΄Π΅Π½ΠΈΡ ΡΠ°ΡΡΡΠΌΠΈ.
1. Dostoevsky is famous for his profound psychological analysis of the depth and complexity of the human soul.
2. He understood the intricacies of character, especially of pathological conscience.
3. He is also famous for his preoccupation with murder and guilt, sin and remorse in his writings.
4. His books reveal compassion for the downtrodden and are often a detailed study of moral suffering.
5. He often suffered great physical pain and mental diseases, including attacks of epilepsy.
6. His books are characterised by complex plot and character development.
7. Dostoevsky edited a magazine which serialised some of his books.
ΠΠ· ΠΏΠΎΡΠΎΠ±ΠΈΡ “ΠΠΠ. ΠΠ½Π³Π»ΠΈΠΉΡΠΊΠΈΠΉ ΡΠ·ΡΠΊ. Π£ΡΡΠ½ΡΠ΅ ΡΠ΅ΠΌΡ” ΠΠ°Π½ΠΈΠ½Π° Π. Π. (2010, 272Ρ.) – Part two. Additional topics.