Π’ΠΎΠΏΠΈΠΊ ΠΡΠΊΠΈΠ½Π³Π΅ΠΌΡΠΊΠΈΠΉ Π΄Π²ΠΎΡΠ΅Ρ ΡΠ°ΡΡΠΊΠ°Π·ΡΠ²Π°Π΅Ρ ΠΎΠ± ΠΎΠ΄Π½ΠΎΠΌ ΠΈΠ· Π½Π΅ΠΌΠ½ΠΎΠ³ΠΈΡ Π΄Π΅ΠΉΡΡΠ²ΡΡΡΠΈΡ ΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΠ»Π΅Π²ΡΠΊΠΈΡ Π΄Π²ΠΎΡΡΠΎΠ² Π² ΡΠΎΠ²ΡΠ΅ΠΌΠ΅Π½Π½ΠΎΠΌ ΠΌΠΈΡΠ΅. ΠΡΠΎ ΠΎΡΠΈΡΠΈΠ°Π»ΡΠ½Π°Ρ ΡΠ΅Π·ΠΈΠ΄Π΅Π½ΡΠΈΡ ΠΠ΅ ΠΠ΅Π»ΠΈΡΠ΅ΡΡΠ²Π° ΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΠ»Π΅Π²Ρ ΠΠ»ΠΈΠ·Π°Π²Π΅ΡΡ II Π² ΠΠΎΠ½Π΄ΠΎΠ½Π΅. ΠΠΎΠ³Π΄Π° ΠΌΠΎΠ½Π°ΡΡ Π½Π°Ρ ΠΎΠ΄ΠΈΡΡΡ Π²ΠΎ Π΄Π²ΠΎΡΡΠ΅, Π½Π°Π΄ ΠΊΡΡΡΠ΅ΠΉ Π΄Π²ΠΎΡΡΠ° ΡΠ°Π·Π²Π΅Π²Π°Π΅ΡΡΡ ΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΠ»Π΅Π²ΡΠΊΠΈΠΉ ΡΡΠ°Π½Π΄Π°ΡΡ. ΠΠ·Π½Π°ΡΠ°Π»ΡΠ½ΠΎ Π΄Π²ΠΎΡΠ΅Ρ ΡΡΡΠΎΠΈΠ»ΡΡ Π΄Π»Ρ Π³Π΅ΡΡΠΎΠ³Π° ΠΡΠΊΠΈΠ½Π³Π΅ΠΌΡΠΊΠΎΠ³ΠΎ, Π² 1762 Π³ΠΎΠ΄Ρ Π±ΡΠ» ΠΏΡΠΈΠΎΠ±ΡΠ΅ΡΠ΅Π½ ΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΠ»Π΅ΠΌ ΠΠ΅ΠΎΡΠ³ΠΎΠΌ III, Π΄ΠΎΡΡΡΠΎΠ΅Π½ ΠΈ, ΠΏΡΠΈ Π²ΡΡΡΠΏΠ»Π΅Π½ΠΈΠΈ Π½Π° ΡΡΠΎΠ½ ΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΠ»Π΅Π²Ρ ΠΠΈΠΊΡΠΎΡΠΈΠΈ Π² 1837 Π³ΠΎΠ΄Ρ, Π±ΡΠ» ΠΎΠ±ΡΡΠ²Π»Π΅Π½ Π³Π»Π°Π²Π½ΠΎΠΉ ΡΠ΅Π·ΠΈΠ΄Π΅Π½ΡΠΈΠ΅ΠΉ Π±ΡΠΈΡΠ°Π½ΡΠΊΠΈΡ ΠΌΠΎΠ½Π°ΡΡ ΠΎΠ². Π‘Π°ΠΌΠΎΠ΅ ΠΏΡΠΎΡΡΠΎΡΠ½ΠΎΠ΅ ΠΈ Π±ΠΎΠ³Π°ΡΠΎ Π΄Π΅ΠΊΠΎΡΠΈΡΠΎΠ²Π°Π½Π½ΠΎΠ΅ ΠΏΠΎΠΌΠ΅ΡΠ΅Π½ΠΈΠ΅ – Π±Π°Π»ΡΠ½ΡΠΉ Π·Π°Π» – Π±ΡΠ»ΠΎ Π·Π°ΠΊΠΎΠ½ΡΠ΅Π½ΠΎ Π»ΠΈΡΡ Π² 1853 Π³ΠΎΠ΄Ρ. ΠΠΎΡΠ»Π΅ ΡΡΠΎΠ³ΠΎ ΠΈΠ½ΡΠ΅ΡΡΠ΅ΡΡ Π΄Π²ΠΎΡΡΠ° Π½Π΅ΠΎΠ΄Π½ΠΎΠΊΡΠ°ΡΠ½ΠΎ ΠΌΠ΅Π½ΡΠ»ΠΈΡΡ, ΠΎΡΡΠ°Π²Π°ΡΡΡ Π½Π΅ΠΈΠ·ΠΌΠ΅Π½Π½ΠΎ ΡΠΎΡΠΊΠΎΡΠ½ΡΠΌΠΈ. Π Π½Π°ΡΡΠΎΡΡΠ΅Π΅ Π²ΡΠ΅ΠΌΡ Π΄Π²ΠΎΡΠ΅Ρ Π²ΠΊΠ»ΡΡΠ°Π΅Ρ Π² ΡΠ΅Π±Ρ 775 ΠΊΠΎΠΌΠ½Π°Ρ. ΠΠ· Π½ΠΈΡ 19 ΡΠ²Π»ΡΡΡΡΡ Π³ΠΎΡΡΠ΄Π°ΡΡΡΠ²Π΅Π½Π½ΡΠΌΠΈ ΠΊΠΎΠΌΠ½Π°ΡΠ°ΠΌΠΈ, 52 ΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΠ»Π΅Π²ΡΠΊΠΈΠ΅ ΠΈ Π΄Π»Ρ Π³ΠΎΡΡΠ΅ΠΉ, 188 Π΄Π»Ρ ΠΏΠ΅ΡΡΠΎΠ½Π°Π»Π°, 92 ΠΎΡΠΈΡΠ°, 72 Π²Π°Π½Π½ΡΡ ΠΊΠΎΠΌΠ½Π°ΡΡ. ΠΠ°Π½ΠΈΠΌΠ°Π΅Ρ ΡΠ΅ΡΡΠΈΡΠΎΡΠΈΡ 20 Π³Π΅ΠΊΡΠ°ΡΠΎΠ², ΠΈΠ· Π½ΠΈΡ 17 Π³Π΅ΠΊΡΠ°ΡΠΎΠ² – ΡΠ°Π΄. Π‘Π°Π΄Ρ ΠΡΠΊΠΈΠ½Π³Π΅ΠΌΡΠΊΠΎΠ³ΠΎ Π΄Π²ΠΎΡΡΠ° – ΡΠ°ΠΌΡΠ΅ Π±ΠΎΠ»ΡΡΠΈΠ΅ ΡΠ°ΡΡΠ½ΡΠ΅ ΡΠ°Π΄Ρ Π² ΠΠΎΠ½Π΄ΠΎΠ½Π΅, Π±ΠΎΠ»ΡΡΠΎΠΉ ΠΈΡΠΊΡΡΡΡΠ²Π΅Π½Π½ΡΠΉ ΠΏΡΡΠ΄ Π±ΡΠ» Π·Π°ΠΊΠΎΠ½ΡΠ΅Π½ Π² 1828 Π³ΠΎΠ΄Ρ. ΠΠ΄Π΅ΡΡ Π΅ΡΡΡ ΡΠ²ΠΎΠ΅ ΠΎΡΠ΄Π΅Π»Π΅Π½ΠΈΠ΅ ΠΏΠΎΠ»ΠΈΡΠΈΠΈ, Π΄Π²Π° ΠΏΠΎΡΡΠΎΠ²ΡΡ ΠΎΡΠΈΡΠ°, Π³ΠΎΡΠΏΠΈΡΠ°Π»Ρ, Π±Π°ΡΡΠ΅ΠΉΠ½, ΠΊΠΈΠ½ΠΎΡΠ΅Π°ΡΡ, Π±Π°Ρ – ΠΏΠΎ ΡΡΡΠΈ Π΄Π΅Π»Π°, ΡΡΠΎ ΡΠ΅Π»ΡΠΉ Π³ΠΎΡΠΎΠ΄. Π ΡΡΠ°ΡΠ΅ ΠΎΠ±ΡΠ»ΡΠΆΠΈΠ²Π°ΡΡΠ΅Π³ΠΎ ΠΏΠ΅ΡΡΠΎΠ½Π°Π»Π° Π΄Π²ΠΎΡΡΠ° ΡΠΎΡΡΠΎΠΈΡ ΠΎΠΊΠΎΠ»ΠΎ 700 ΡΠ΅Π»ΠΎΠ²Π΅ΠΊ. ΠΠ²ΠΎΡΠ΅Ρ ΠΎΡ ΡΠ°Π½ΡΠ΅Ρ ΠΡΠΈΠ΄Π²ΠΎΡΠ½Π°Ρ Π΄ΠΈΠ²ΠΈΠ·ΠΈΡ, ΡΠΎΡΡΠΎΡΡΠ°Ρ ΠΈΠ· ΠΏΠΎΠ»ΠΊΠ° Π³Π²Π°ΡΠ΄Π΅ΠΉΡΠΊΠΎΠΉ ΠΏΠ΅Ρ ΠΎΡΡ ΠΈ ΠΠΎΡΠΎΠ»Π΅Π²ΡΠΊΠΎΠ³ΠΎ ΠΊΠΎΠ½Π½ΠΎΠ³Π²Π°ΡΠ΄Π΅ΠΉΡΠΊΠΎΠ³ΠΎ ΠΏΠΎΠ»ΠΊΠ°. ΠΠ°ΠΆΠ΄ΡΠΉ Π΄Π΅Π½Ρ ΠΏΡΠΎΡ ΠΎΠ΄ΠΈΡ ΡΠ΅ΡΠ΅ΠΌΠΎΠ½ΠΈΡ ΡΠΌΠ΅Π½Ρ ΠΊΠ°ΡΠ°ΡΠ»Π°. ΠΡΠΎ Π΅Π΄Π²Π° Π»ΠΈ Π½Π΅ ΡΠ°ΠΌΠ°Ρ Π·Π½Π°ΠΌΠ΅Π½ΠΈΡΠ°Ρ ΡΠ΅ΡΠ΅ΠΌΠΎΠ½ΠΈΡ Π² ΠΠΎΠ½Π΄ΠΎΠ½Π΅; ΠΎΠ½Π° ΠΏΡΠΈΠ²Π»Π΅ΠΊΠ°Π΅Ρ ΠΌΠ½ΠΎΠΆΠ΅ΡΡΠ²ΠΎ ΡΡΡΠΈΡΡΠΎΠ². ΠΠ΅ΡΠΎΠΌ Π΄Π²ΠΎΡΠ΅Ρ ΠΏΠΎΡΠ΅ΡΠ°ΡΡ ΠΎΠΊΠΎΠ»ΠΎ 50 000 Π³ΠΎΡΡΠ΅ΠΉ: Π² ΡΠ΅ΡΠ΅Π½ΠΈΠ΅ Π°Π²Π³ΡΡΡΠ° ΠΈ ΡΠ΅Π½ΡΡΠ±ΡΡ, ΠΊΠΎΠ³Π΄Π° ΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΠ»Π΅Π²Π° ΠΏΠΎΠΊΠΈΠ΄Π°Π΅Ρ ΠΡΠΊΠΈΠ½Π³Π΅ΠΌΡΠΊΠΈΠΉ Π΄Π²ΠΎΡΠ΅Ρ, ΠΎΠ½ ΡΡΠ°Π½ΠΎΠ²ΠΈΡΡΡ Π΄ΠΎΡΡΡΠΏΠ½ΡΠΌ Π΄Π»Ρ ΠΏΠΎΡΠ΅ΡΠΈΡΠ΅Π»Π΅ΠΉ. Π ΠΏΠΎΡΠΌΠΎΡΡΠ΅ΡΡ Π·Π΄Π΅ΡΡ Π΅ΡΡΡ ΡΡΠΎ! Π ΠΎΡΠΊΠΎΡΠ½ΡΠ΅ ΡΠ°ΡΡ ΠΈ ΠΊΠ°Π½Π΄Π΅Π»ΡΠ±ΡΡ, ΡΡΠ°ΡΠΈΠ½Π½ΡΠ΅ Π²Π°Π·Ρ, ΠΈΡΠΊΡΡΠ½ΠΎ ΡΠ΄Π΅Π»Π°Π½Π½Π°Ρ ΠΌΠ΅Π±Π΅Π»Ρ, ΠΎΠ΄Π½Π° ΠΈΠ· Π»ΡΡΡΠΈΡ Π² ΠΌΠΈΡΠ΅ ΠΊΠΎΠ»Π»Π΅ΠΊΡΠΈΠΉ ΡΠ°ΡΡΠΎΡΠ°, Π²Π΅Π»ΠΈΠΊΠΎΠ»Π΅ΠΏΠ½ΡΠ΅ ΠΊΠΎΠ»Π»Π΅ΠΊΡΠΈΠΈ ΠΆΠΈΠ²ΠΎΠΏΠΈΡΠΈ, ΠΏΡΠΈΠ½Π°Π΄Π»Π΅ΠΆΠ°ΡΠΈΠ΅ Π±ΡΠΈΡΠ°Π½ΡΠΊΠΎΠΉ ΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΠ»Π΅Π²Π΅ – ΡΡΠΎ Π²ΡΠ΅ ΠΌΠΎΠΆΠ½ΠΎ ΡΠ²ΠΈΠ΄Π΅ΡΡ Π²ΠΎ Π²ΡΠ΅ΠΌΡ ΡΠΊΡΠΊΡΡΡΠΈΠΈ Π²ΠΎ Π΄Π²ΠΎΡΠ΅Ρ. ΠΡΠΎΠ±ΡΠΉ ΠΈΠ½ΡΠ΅ΡΠ΅Ρ ΠΏΡΠ΅Π΄ΡΡΠ°Π²Π»ΡΡΡ ΠΠΎΡΠΎΠ»Π΅Π²ΡΠΊΠΈΠ΅ ΠΊΠΎΠ½ΡΡΠ½ΠΈ, ΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΡΡΠ΅ Ρ 2011 Π³ΠΎΠ΄Π° ΠΎΡΠΊΡΡΡΡ Π΄Π»Ρ ΠΏΠΎΡΠ΅ΡΠ΅Π½ΠΈΡ ΠΊΡΡΠ³Π»ΠΎΠ³ΠΎΠ΄ΠΈΡΠ½ΠΎ, Π½ΠΎ ΠΏΡΠΈ ΡΡΠΎΠΌ ΡΠ²Π»ΡΡΡΡΡ Π΄Π΅ΠΉΡΡΠ²ΡΡΡΠΈΠΌΠΈ. Π ΡΠΊΡΠΏΠΎΠ·ΠΈΡΠΈΠΈ ΠΏΡΠ΅Π΄ΡΡΠ°Π²Π»Π΅Π½Ρ ΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΠ»Π΅Π²ΡΠΊΠΈΠ΅ Π²ΠΈΠ΄Ρ ΡΡΠ°Π½ΡΠΏΠΎΡΡΠ°, Π² Ρ. Ρ. Π·ΠΎΠ»ΠΎΡΠ°Ρ ΠΊΠ°ΡΠ΅ΡΠ° Π΄Π»Ρ ΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΠ½Π°ΡΠΈΠΉ ΠΈ ΠΏΡΠΎΠ·ΡΠ°ΡΠ½Π°Ρ ΠΊΠ°ΡΠ΅ΡΠ° Π΄Π»Ρ Π½Π΅Π²Π΅ΡΡ. ΠΡΡΡ Π²ΠΎ Π΄Π²ΠΎΡΡΠ΅ ΠΌΠ°Π³Π°Π·ΠΈΠ½, ΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΡΡΠΉ ΡΠΏΠ΅ΡΠΈΠ°Π»ΠΈΠ·ΠΈΡΡΠ΅ΡΡΡ Π½Π° ΠΏΡΠΎΠ΄Π°ΠΆΠ΅ ΡΠΎΠ²Π°ΡΠΎΠ² ΠΈΠ· ΡΠ°ΠΊ Π½Π°Π·ΡΠ²Π°Π΅ΠΌΠΎΠΉ “ΠΠΎΡΠΎΠ»Π΅Π²ΡΠΊΠΎΠΉ ΠΊΠΎΠ»Π»Π΅ΠΊΡΠΈΠΈ”. ΠΡΠΈ ΡΠΎΠ²Π°ΡΡ ΠΈΠ΄Π΅Π½ΡΠΈΡΠ½Ρ ΡΠ΅ΠΌ ΠΏΡΠ΅Π΄ΠΌΠ΅ΡΠ°ΠΌ ΠΎΠ±ΠΈΡ ΠΎΠ΄Π°, ΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΡΡΠΌΠΈ ΠΏΠΎΠ»ΡΠ·ΡΡΡΡΡ Π² ΠΏΠΎΠ²ΡΠ΅Π΄Π½Π΅Π²Π½ΠΎΠΉ ΠΆΠΈΠ·Π½ΠΈ Π΄Π²ΠΎΡΡΠ°: Π°ΠΊΡΠ΅ΡΡΡΠ°ΡΡ, ΠΏΠΎΠ»ΠΎΡΠ΅Π½ΡΠ°, ΠΊΡΡ ΠΎΠ½Π½Π°Ρ ΡΡΠ²Π°ΡΡ, ΡΠ°Π·Π»ΠΈΡΠ½ΡΠ΅ ΠΌΠ΅Π»ΠΎΡΠΈ.
Buckingham Palace is the official residence of the British monarch in London, England. The Palace is a setting for state occasions and royal entertaining, a base for many officially visiting Heads of State, and a major tourist attraction. It has been a rallying point for the British people at times of national rejoicing, crisis or grief. “Buckingham Palace”, “Buck House” or simply “The Palace” commonly refers to the source of press statements issued by the offices of the Royal Household.
Originally known as Buckingham House, the building forming the core of today’s palace was a large townhouse built for the Duke of Buckingham in 1703 and acquired by King George III in 1762 as a private residence. It was enlarged over the next 75 years, principally by architects John Nash and Edward Blore, forming three wings around a central courtyard. Buckingham Palace finally became the official royal palace of the British monarch on the accession of Queen Victoria in 1837. The last major structural additions were made in the late 19th and early 20th century, when the large east wing facing The Mall was added, and the former State entrance, Marble Arch, was removed to its present position near Speakers’ Corner in Hyde Park. The east front was refaced in Portland stone in 1913 as a backdrop to the Victoria Memorial, creating the present-day public face of Buckingham Palace, including the famous balcony.
The Palace contains 77,000 squared meters of floorspace (828,818 squared feet). The principal rooms of the Palace are contained on the piano nobile behind the west-facing garden facade at the rear of the Palace. The centre of this ornate suite of State Rooms is the Music Room, its large bow the dominant feature of the facade. Flanking the Music Room are the Blue and the White Drawing rooms. At the centre of the suite, serving as a corridor to link the state rooms, is the Picture Gallery, which is top lit and 55 yards (50 m) long. The Gallery is hung with works by Rembrandt, van Dyck, Rubens, and Vermeer, among many others. Other rooms leading from the Picture Gallery are the famous Throne Room and the Green Drawing Room. The Green Drawing room serves as a huge anteroom to the Throne Room, and is part of the ceremonial route to the Throne from the Guard Room at the top of the Grand Staircase. The Guard Room contains a white marble statue of Prince Albert, in Roman costume set in a tribune lined with tapestries. These very formal rooms are used only for ceremonial and official entertaining. Directly underneath the State Apartments is a suite of slightly less grand rooms known as the semi-state apartments. Opening from the marble hall, these rooms are used for less-formal entertaining, such as luncheon parties and private audiences. Some of the rooms are named and decorated for particular visitors, such as the ‘1844 Room’, which was decorated in that year for the State visit of Emperor Nicholas I of Russia. At the centre of this suite is the Bow Room, through which thousands of guests pass annually to the Queen’s Garden Parties in the Gardens beyond. The Queen uses privately a smaller suite of rooms in the North wing.
At the back of the Palace, large and park-like, is the Garden. Here the Queen hosts her annual garden parties each summer, but since June 2002, she has invited the public into the Garden on numerous occasions. For example, for Queen’s Golden Jubilee (2002) and her 80th birthday (2006). More than 50,000 people visit the palace each year as guests to banquets, lunches, dinners, receptions and the royal garden parties.
The State Ballroom is the largest room at Buckingham Palace. It was added by Queen Victoria and is used for ceremonies such as state banquets. During the current reign court ceremony has undergone a radical change, and entry to the palace is no longer the prerogative of just the upper class. There has been a progressive relaxation of the dress code governing formal court uniform and dress. In previous reigns, men not wearing military uniform wore knee breeches of an 18th-century design. Women’s evening dress included obligatory trains and tiaras and/or feathers in their hair. After World War I, when Queen Mary wished to follow fashion by raising her skirts a few inches from the ground, she requested a Lady-in-Waiting to shorten her own skirt first to gauge the King’s reaction. King George V was horrified and Queen Mary’s hemline remained unfashionably low. And King George VI and Queen Elizabeth allowed daytime skirts to rise. Today there is no official dress code. Most men invited to Buckingham Palace in the daytime choose to wear service uniform or morning coats, and in the evening, depending on the formality of the occasion, black tie or white tie. If the occasion is ‘white tie’ then women, if they possess one, wear a tiara. Security Guards march out of Buckingham Palace at the end of the daily.
The famous armed sentries on guard on the Palace forecourt are commonly thought to be ceremonial, but they have always had a security role. The Palace also contains its own police station, and the Royal Family have their own protection officers at all times. The Foot Guards battalion at Wellington Barracks is only 300 yards (275 m) away. The units at Chelsea Barracks (Foot Guards) and Hyde Park Barracks (Household Cavalry) are both three-quarters of a mile away (1.2km).The sights around Crowds walk down the Mall towards the Palace and the Victoria Memorial. The flags interspersed with the Union Flag indicate a Norwegian State Visit in progress. Adjacent to the Palace is the Royal Mews, also designed by Nash, where the royal carriages, including the Gold State Coach, are housed. Also housed in the Mews are the carriage horses used in royal ceremonial processions. The Mall, a ceremonial approach route to the Palace, was designed by Sir Aston Webb and completed in 1911 as part of a grand memorial to Queen Victoria. It extends from Admiralty Arch, up around the Victoria Memorial to the Palace forecourt. The reddish colour of the Mall’s tarmac recalls the red carpet of former times. This route is used by the cavalcades and motorcades of all visiting heads of state, and by the Royal Family on state occasions such as the annual State Opening of Parliament as well as Trooping the Colour each year.