Π’ΠΎΠΏΠΈΠΊ ΠΡΠΈΡΠ°Π½ΡΠΊΠΈΠ΅ ΡΠ΅Π°ΡΡΡ ΡΠ°ΡΡΠΊΠ°Π·ΡΠ²Π°Π΅Ρ ΠΎΠ± ΠΈΡΡΠΎΡΠΈΠΈ ΠΏΠΎΡΠ²Π»Π΅Π½ΠΈΡ ΡΠ΅Π°ΡΡΠΎΠ² Π² ΠΠ΅Π»ΠΈΠΊΠΎΠ±ΡΠΈΡΠ°Π½ΠΈΠΈ. Π‘Π²ΠΎΠ΅ Π½Π°ΡΠ°Π»ΠΎ Π΄ΡΠ°ΠΌΠ°ΡΠΈΡΠ΅ΡΠΊΠΎΠ΅ ΠΈΡΠΊΡΡΡΡΠ²ΠΎ ΠΠ½Π³Π»ΠΈΠΈ Π±Π΅ΡΠ΅Ρ ΠΈΠ· ΡΠ»ΠΈΡΠ½ΡΡ ΠΏΡΠ΅Π΄ΡΡΠ°Π²Π»Π΅Π½ΠΈΠΉ, ΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΡΡΠ΅ ΠΏΡΠΎΠ²ΠΎΠ΄ΠΈΠ»ΠΈΡΡ Π½Π° ΡΠ΅ΡΠΊΠΎΠ²Π½ΡΠ΅ ΠΏΡΠ°Π·Π΄Π½ΠΈΠΊΠΈ ΠΈ ΠΈΠ³ΡΠ°Π»ΠΈ ΡΠΎΠ»Ρ ΡΠ²ΠΎΠ΅ΠΎΠ±ΡΠ°Π·Π½ΡΡ Π½ΡΠ°Π²ΠΎΡΡΠ΅Π½ΠΈΠΉ. Π ΡΠΏΠΎΡ Ρ ΠΠΎΠ·ΡΠΎΠΆΠ΄Π΅Π½ΠΈΡ Π²ΡΠ΅ Π½Π°ΠΏΡΠ°Π²Π»Π΅Π½ΠΈΡ ΠΈΡΠΊΡΡΡΡΠ²Π° ΠΏΡΠΈΠΎΠ±ΡΠ΅ΡΠ°ΡΡ Π±ΠΎΠ»Π΅Π΅ ΡΠ²Π΅ΡΡΠΊΠΈΠΉ Ρ Π°ΡΠ°ΠΊΡΠ΅Ρ ΠΈ ΠΎΡΡ ΠΎΠ΄ΡΡ ΠΎΡ ΡΠ΅Π»ΠΈΠ³ΠΈΠΎΠ·Π½ΠΎΠΉ ΡΠ΅ΠΌΠ°ΡΠΈΠΊΠΈ. ΠΠΌΠ΅Π½Π½ΠΎ Π² ΡΡΠΎ Π²ΡΠ΅ΠΌΡ ΠΏΠΎΡΠ²Π»ΡΠ΅ΡΡΡ ΡΠ΅Π²ΠΎΠ»ΡΡΠΈΠΎΠ½Π½ΡΠΉ Π½Π° ΡΠΎΡ ΠΌΠΎΠΌΠ΅Π½Ρ ΡΠ΅Π°ΡΡ “ΠΠ»ΠΎΠ±ΡΡ”, Π³Π΄Π΅ ΡΡΠ°Π²ΠΈΠ» ΠΏΡΠ΅ΡΡ ΠΈΠ·Π²Π΅ΡΡΠ½ΡΠΉ ΡΠ΅ΠΉΡΠ°Ρ Π½Π° Π²Π΅ΡΡ ΠΌΠΈΡ Π. Π¨Π΅ΠΊΡΠΏΠΈΡ. Π Π½Π°ΡΠ΅ Π²ΡΠ΅ΠΌΡ Π½Π°ΠΈΠ±ΠΎΠ»Π΅Π΅ ΠΈΠ·Π²Π΅ΡΡΠ½Ρ: ΠΠΎΡΠΎΠ»Π΅Π²ΡΠΊΠΈΠΉ ΠΠ°ΡΠΈΠΎΠ½Π°Π»ΡΠ½ΡΠΉ ΡΠ΅Π°ΡΡ, “ΠΠΎΡΠΎΠ»Π΅Π²ΡΠΊΠ°Ρ ΡΠ΅ΠΊΡΠΏΠΈΡΠΎΠ²ΡΠΊΠ°Ρ ΠΊΠΎΠΌΠΏΠ°Π½ΠΈΡ” ΠΈ ΡΠ΅Π°ΡΡ “ΠΠΎΠ²Π΅Π½Ρ-ΠΠ°ΡΠ΄Π΅Π½”. ΠΠΎΡΠΎΠ»Π΅Π²ΡΠΊΠΈΠΉ ΡΠ΅Π°ΡΡ Π² ΠΠΎΠ²Π΅Π½Ρ-ΠΠ°ΡΠ΄Π΅Π½Π΅ ΡΠ»ΡΠΆΠΈΡ ΠΌΠ΅ΡΡΠΎΠΌ ΠΏΡΠΎΠ²Π΅Π΄Π΅Π½ΠΈΡ ΠΎΠΏΠ΅ΡΠ½ΡΡ ΠΈ Π±Π°Π»Π΅ΡΠ½ΡΡ ΡΠΏΠ΅ΠΊΡΠ°ΠΊΠ»Π΅ΠΉ, ΡΡΠΎ Π΄ΠΎΠΌΠ°ΡΠ½ΡΡ ΡΡΠ΅Π½Π° ΠΠΎΡΠΎΠ»Π΅Π²ΡΠΊΠΎΠΉ ΠΎΠΏΠ΅ΡΡ ΠΈ ΠΠΎΡΠΎΠ»Π΅Π²ΡΠΊΠΎΠ³ΠΎ Π±Π°Π»Π΅ΡΠ°. Π Π°ΡΠΏΠΎΠ»ΠΎΠΆΠ΅Π½ Π² ΡΠ°ΠΉΠΎΠ½Π΅ ΠΠΎΠ²Π΅Π½Ρ-ΠΠ°ΡΠ΄Π΅Π½, ΠΏΠΎ ΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΡΠΎΠΌΡ ΠΈ ΠΏΠΎΠ»ΡΡΠΈΠ» Π½Π°Π·Π²Π°Π½ΠΈΠ΅.
Until recently, the history of the english theatre has been build around actors rather then companies. It was hard to find any London theatre that even had a consistent policy. There is no permanent staff in British theatres. A play is rehearsed for a few weeks by a company of actors working together mostly for the first time and it is allowed to run as long as it draws the odious and pays it’s way.
Another peculiarity of the theatres in Great Britain is as follows: there are two kinds of seats, which can be booked in advance (bookable), and unbookable ones have no numbers and the spectators occupy them on the principle: first come – first served. In ancient times plays were acted inside churches and later – on the market places.
The first theatre in England “The Blackfries” was built in 1576, and “The Globe”, which is closely connected with William Shakespeare, was built in 1599. Speaking about our times we should first of all mention “The English National theatre”, “The Royal Shakespeare company” and “Covent Garden”.
“Covent Garden” used to be a fashionable promenade – it was, before then, a covent garden – but when it became overrun with flower-sellers, orange-vendors and vegetable-growers, the people moved to more exclusive surroundings farther west, such as “St. Jame’s Square”. The first “Covent Garden Theatre” was built in 1732. It was burnt down in 1808 and rebuilt exactly a year after. It opened in September 1809, with Shakespeare’s “Macbeth”. Since the middle of the last century “Covent Garden” became exclusively devoted to opera.
Now “Covent Garden” is busier than ever, it is one of the few well-known opera houses, open for 11 months of the year and it employs over 600 people from both the Opera company and the Royal Ballet.