Деньги являются неотъемлемой частью финансовой системы любой страны. Они используются людьми и организациями для того, чтобы платить за определенные услуги или товары. Не имеет значения, как мы их называем – доллары, рубли, фунты, франки или как-то еще. Все они служат в качестве средства платежа или расчетной единицы. Возможно, это величайшее изобретение, которое человеческий ум мог когда-либо придумать. Система обмена деньгами была основана на торговых отношениях. Поскольку в древние времена денег не было, люди просто обменивались товарами, называя это бартером.
Money is an integral part of any country’s financial system. It’s used by people and businesses to pay for certain services or goods. It doesn’t matter what we call them – dollars, rubles, pounds, francs or else. They all serve as means of payment or unit of account. Perhaps, it’s the greatest invention that human mind could ever come up with. The system of money exchange was based on trade relations. Since there was no money in ancient times, people simply exchanged goods and called it barter.
However, there is some proof that monetary system in certain countries is quite an old one. For example, first paper money appeared in China during the Tang Dynasty (A. D. 618-907). First Roman coins were produced in the late 4th century B. C. The question of evolution of money is quite an interesting one. At first Metal coins developed as a necessity in case of barter. They were mainly made of gold, copper or silver. These metals were relatively rare, that’s why their price was rather high.
According to some sources the first coins were introduced in the 7th century B. C. by Lydians. They contained 75% of gold and 25% of silver. These coins were seen and adopted by Greeks, then by Romans and later by some Asian countries. With the increase and development of trade people needed more money of different value. That’s when Engraved coins were presented. However, they had a number of disadvantages. First of all, engraving required a long and laborious process of coinage. Secondly, it brought some inconvenience in handling. Thirdly, there were some transportation difficulties.
All in all, metallic money didn’t show much contribution to the development of countries. That’s why the idea to issue Paper money was born. Of course, they were less durable than metal, but the convenience and speed of their production made it easy to replace the worn-out bills. After all, it was clear that paper bills are easier to handle than coins. Of course, there was a practice of issuing coins with low content of precious metals, but it wasn’t as widespread. It’s important to mention that people soon understood that money should be permanent, i. e. they should not deteriorate during storage and during their transition.
It’s worth mentioning that economic literature considers two concepts of money origin: rationalistic and evolutionary. The first one explains the origin of money as a result of agreement between people. The second one proves that money didn’t appear simultaneously by some kind of agreement, but as a result of a long process of exchange relations’ development. The most consistent supporter of the evolutionary concept was the well-known economist and sociologist Karl Marx.