Imagine you are telling your foreign guest about Russia. What main points (geography, political system, economy, culture) would you touch upon?
The first thing I am going to tell my foreign visitor about is the geography and climate of Russia, as the geographical position and climate of a country influence the country’s economy; the second reason is that they influence lifestyles and the health of its people, as well as the national character. The Russian Federation, or Russia is the largest country in the world. Its vast territory lies in the eastern part of Europe and the northern part of Asia. The country is washed by three oceans (the Arctic, the Atlantic, the Pacific) and twelve seas (the White Sea, the Barents Sea, the Okhotsk Sea, the Baltic Sea, the Black Sea, the Caspian Sea, the Azov Sea and others). Russia borders on many countries: Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania in the north, China, Mongolia, North Korea and others in the south-east, Poland, Belarus, Ukraine in the west, and others. The land of Russia varies very much from forests to deserts, from high mountains to deep valleys. Mountain ranges are found along the southern borders, such as the Caucasus and the Altai, and in the eastern parts, such as the Verkhoyansk Range. The Caucasus contain Mount Elbrus, Russia’s and Europe’s highest point at 5,633 m. The more central Ural Mountains, a north-south range that forms the primary divide between Europe and Asia, are also notable. There are a lot of great rivers and deep lakes in the country. Notable rivers of Russia in Europe are the Volga, Don, Kama, Oka and the Northern Dvina, while several other rivers originate in Russia but flow into other countries, such as the Dnieper and the Western Dvina. In Asia, important rivers are the Ob, Yrtysh, Yenisei, Angara, Lena, Amur and Kolyma. The largest lakes are Baikal, Ladoga and Onega. Baikal is the deepest fresh-water lake in the world and its water is the purest on Earth. The climate of Russia is varied, from arctic and subarctic in the north, continental in the centre, to subtropical in the south.
The Russian Federation is extremely rich in natural and mineral resources. It has deposits of oil, gas, iron, gold, non-ferrous metals and many other minerals.
The second thing I am going to speak about is Russia’s economy as I believe economy is a foundation of any country’s life.
The economy of Russia is going through a transitional period from the centrally planned socialist economy to a market economy. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 the greater part of industries were privatized, agriculture and land underwent partial privatization later and are still undergoing it. After the crisis of 1997 and the depreciation of the rouble followed by sharp deterioration in living standards for most of the population, Russia’s economy faced recession. The economy started recovering in 1999, partially because of high export prices on oil and gas which Russia is rich in. Russia is still heavily dependent on export of oil, gas and timber, while its industrial and farming sectors are still weak as compared with those of the developed countries, but the rate of economic growth of the country is very high. If the rate is the same within a period of several years, Russia will be the second largest European economy after Germany.
The third point I am going to touch upon is Russia’s political system.
The current population of Russia is about 143 million people. The capital of the Russian Federation is Moscow, with a population of about 11 million people.
Russia is a parliamentary republic. Head of State in the country is President, directly elected for a four-year term, who has considerable executive power and is head of the executive branch of the government. The government consists of three branches: legislative (the Federal Assembly, consisting of the Federation Council and the State Duma), executive (the government, or the Cabinet of Ministers) and judicial (the system of courts, including the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and other courts). The national flag of Russia is a white-blue-and-red banner. The national language of the Russian Federation is Russian. The Orthodox Church is the dominant religion in Russia.
And finally, I am going to speak about Russian culture.
Russian culture abounds in names which are famous all over the world. Actually, there is no field in science or arts where Russia failed to contribute to the world’s intellectual and artistic treasure-houses, (see ‘Outstanding People’)
Translate the following sentences into English.
1. Π‘ΡΠΈΡΠ°Π΅ΡΡΡ, ΡΡΠΎ Π³Π΅ΠΎΠ³ΡΠ°ΡΠΈΡΠ΅ΡΠΊΠΎΠ΅ ΠΏΠΎΠ»ΠΎΠΆΠ΅Π½ΠΈΠ΅ ΠΈ ΠΊΠ»ΠΈΠΌΠ°Ρ ΠΎΠΊΠ°Π·ΡΠ²Π°ΡΡ Π²Π»ΠΈΡΠ½ΠΈΠ΅ Π½Π° ΡΠΊΠΎΠ½ΠΎΠΌΠΈΠΊΡ, ΡΡΠΈΠ»Ρ ΠΆΠΈΠ·Π½ΠΈ ΡΡΡΠ°Π½Ρ ΠΈ Π½Π°ΡΠΈΠΎΠ½Π°Π»ΡΠ½ΡΠΉ Ρ Π°ΡΠ°ΠΊΡΠ΅Ρ.
2. ΠΠ±ΡΠΈΡΠ½Π°Ρ ΡΠ΅ΡΡΠΈΡΠΎΡΠΈΡ Π ΠΎΡΡΠΈΠΈ ΠΎΠΌΡΠ²Π°Π΅ΡΡΡ ΡΡΠ΅ΠΌΡ ΠΎΠΊΠ΅Π°Π½Π°ΠΌΠΈ ΠΈ Π΄Π²Π΅Π½Π°Π΄ΡΠ°ΡΡΡ ΠΌΠΎΡΡΠΌΠΈ ΠΈ Π³ΡΠ°Π½ΠΈΡΠΈΡ ΡΠΎ ΠΌΠ½ΠΎΠ³ΠΈΠΌΠΈ ΡΡΡΠ°Π½Π°ΠΌΠΈ.
3. ΠΠ°Π½Π΄ΡΠ°ΡΡΡ (land) ΡΠ°Π·Π½ΠΎΠΎΠ±ΡΠ°Π·Π½Ρ, ΠΎΡ Π»Π΅ΡΠΎΠ² Π΄ΠΎ ΠΏΡΡΡΡΠ½Ρ, ΠΎΡ Π²ΡΡΠΎΠΊΠΈΡ Π³ΠΎΡ Π΄ΠΎ Π³Π»ΡΠ±ΠΎΠΊΠΈΡ Π΄ΠΎΠ»ΠΈΠ½ ΠΈ Π²ΠΊΠ»ΡΡΠ°ΡΡ Π±ΠΎΠ»ΡΡΠΎΠ΅ ΠΊΠΎΠ»ΠΈΡΠ΅ΡΡΠ²ΠΎ Π³ΠΎΡΠ½ΡΡ ΡΠ΅ΠΏΠ΅ΠΉ, Π² ΡΠΎΠΌ ΡΠΈΡΠ»Π΅ ΠΠ°Π²ΠΊΠ°Π· Ρ ΡΠ°ΠΌΠΎΠΉ Π²ΡΡΠΎΠΊΠΎΠΉ ΡΠΎΡΠΊΠΎΠΉ ΠΠ²ΡΠΎΠΏΡ – Π³ΠΎΡΠΎΠΉ ΠΠ»ΡΠ±ΡΡΡ, Π£ΡΠ°Π»ΡΡΠΊΠΈΠ΅ Π³ΠΎΡΡ, ΠΠ»ΡΠ°ΠΉ ΠΈ Ρ. Π΄.
4. Π Π ΠΎΡΡΠΈΠΈ ΠΌΠ½ΠΎΠ³ΠΎ Π±ΠΎΠ»ΡΡΠΈΡ ΡΠ΅ΠΊ ΠΈ ΠΎΠ·Π΅Ρ, Π² ΡΠΎΠΌ ΡΠΈΡΠ»Π΅ ΠΠ°ΠΉΠΊΠ°Π», ΡΠ°ΠΌΠΎΠ΅ Π³Π»ΡΠ±ΠΎΠΊΠΎΠ΅ ΠΈ ΡΠΈΡΡΠΎΠ΅ ΠΏΡΠ΅ΡΠ½ΠΎΠ²ΠΎΠ΄Π½ΠΎΠ΅ ΠΎΠ·Π΅ΡΠΎ Π² ΠΠ²ΡΠΎΠΏΠ΅.
5. ΠΠΎΡΠ»Π΅ ΡΠ°ΡΠΏΠ°Π΄Π° Π‘ΠΎΠ²Π΅ΡΡΠΊΠΎΠ³ΠΎ Π‘ΠΎΡΠ·Π° Π ΠΎΡΡΠΈΡ ΠΏΡΠΎΡ ΠΎΠ΄ΠΈΡ ΡΠ΅ΡΠ΅Π· ΠΏΠ΅ΡΠ΅Ρ ΠΎΠ΄Π½ΡΠΉ ΠΏΠ΅ΡΠΈΠΎΠ΄ – ΠΎΡ ΡΠΎΡΠΈΠ°Π»ΠΈΡΡΠΈΡΠ΅ΡΠΊΠΎΠΉ ΡΠΊΠΎΠ½ΠΎΠΌΠΈΠΊΠΈ, ΠΎΡΠ½ΠΎΠ²Π°Π½Π½ΠΎΠΉ Π½Π° ΡΠ΅Π½ΡΡΠ°Π»ΠΈΠ·ΠΎΠ²Π°Π½Π½ΠΎΠΌ ΠΏΠ»Π°Π½ΠΈΡΠΎΠ²Π°Π½ΠΈΠΈ, ΠΊ ΡΡΠ½ΠΎΡΠ½ΠΎΠΉ ΡΠΊΠΎΠ½ΠΎΠΌΠΈΠΊΠ΅.
6. ΠΠΎΠ»ΡΡΠ°Ρ ΡΠ°ΡΡΡ ΠΎΡΡΠ°ΡΠ»Π΅ΠΉ ΠΏΡΠΎΠΌΡΡΠ»Π΅Π½Π½ΠΎΡΡΠΈ Π ΠΎΡΡΠΈΠΈ ΡΠΆΠ΅ ΠΏΡΠΈΠ²Π°ΡΠΈΠ·ΠΈΡΠΎΠ²Π°Π½Π°, Π° ΡΠ΅Π»ΡΡΠΊΠΎΠ΅ Ρ ΠΎΠ·ΡΠΉΡΡΠ²ΠΎ Π²ΡΠ΅ Π΅ΡΠ΅ ΠΏΡΠΎΡ ΠΎΠ΄ΠΈΡ ΠΏΡΠΈΠ²Π°ΡΠΈΠ·Π°ΡΠΈΡ.
7. ΠΡΠΈΠ·ΠΈΡ ΠΈ ΠΎΠ±Π΅ΡΡΠ΅Π½ΠΈΠ²Π°Π½ΠΈΠ΅ ΡΡΠ±Π»Ρ ΠΏΡΠΈΠ²Π΅Π»ΠΈ ΠΊ ΡΠ΅Π·ΠΊΠΎΠΌΡ ΠΏΠ°Π΄Π΅Π½ΠΈΡ ΡΡΠΎΠ²Π½Ρ ΠΆΠΈΠ·Π½ΠΈ Π±ΠΎΠ»ΡΡΠ΅ΠΉ ΡΠ°ΡΡΠΈ Π½Π°ΡΠ΅Π»Π΅Π½ΠΈΡ, Π ΠΎΡΡΠΈΡ ΠΏΠ΅ΡΠ΅ΠΆΠΈΠ²Π°Π»Π° ΡΠΊΠΎΠ½ΠΎΠΌΠΈΡΠ΅ΡΠΊΠΈΠΉ ΡΠΏΠ°Π΄.
8. Π₯ΠΎΡΡ Π ΠΎΡΡΠΈΡ Π΄ΠΎ ΡΠΈΡ ΠΏΠΎΡ ΡΠΈΠ»ΡΠ½ΠΎ Π·Π°Π²ΠΈΡΠΈΡ ΠΎΡ ΡΠΊΡΠΏΠΎΡΡΠ° Π½Π΅ΡΡΠΈ, Π³Π°Π·Π° ΠΈ Π»Π΅ΡΠ°, Π° Π΅Π΅ ΠΏΡΠΎΠΌΡΡΠ»Π΅Π½Π½ΡΠΉ ΠΈ ΡΠ΅Π»ΡΡΠΊΠΎΡ ΠΎΠ·ΡΠΉΡΡΠ²Π΅Π½Π½ΡΠΉ ΡΠ΅ΠΊΡΠΎΡΠ° ΡΠ»Π°Π±Ρ, ΡΠ΅ΠΌΠΏ ΡΠΊΠΎΠ½ΠΎΠΌΠΈΡΠ΅ΡΠΊΠΎΠ³ΠΎ ΡΠΎΡΡΠ° ΠΎΡΠ΅Π½Ρ Π²ΡΡΠΎΠΊ.
9. Π ΠΎΡΡΠΈΡ – ΠΏΠ°ΡΠ»Π°ΠΌΠ΅Π½ΡΡΠΊΠ°Ρ ΡΠ΅ΡΠΏΡΠ±Π»ΠΈΠΊΠ°, Π² ΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΡΠΎΠΉ Π³Π»Π°Π²ΠΎΠΉ Π³ΠΎΡΡΠ΄Π°ΡΡΡΠ²Π° ΠΈ ΠΈΡΠΏΠΎΠ»Π½ΠΈΡΠ΅Π»ΡΠ½ΠΎΠΉ Π²Π»Π°ΡΡΠΈ ΡΠ²Π»ΡΠ΅ΡΡΡ ΠΏΡΠ΅Π·ΠΈΠ΄Π΅Π½Ρ, ΠΈΠ·Π±ΠΈΡΠ°Π΅ΠΌΡΠΉ ΠΏΡΡΠΌΡΠΌ Π³ΠΎΠ»ΠΎΡΠΎΠ²Π°Π½ΠΈΠ΅ΠΌ Π½Π° ΡΠ΅ΡΡΡΠ΅Ρ Π»Π΅ΡΠ½ΠΈΠΉ ΡΡΠΎΠΊ.
10. ΠΠ°ΠΊΠΎΠ½ΠΎΠ΄Π°ΡΠ΅Π»ΡΠ½Π°Ρ Π²Π»Π°ΡΡΡ ΠΏΡΠ΅Π΄ΡΡΠ°Π²Π»Π΅Π½Π° Π€Π΅Π΄Π΅ΡΠ°Π»ΡΠ½ΡΠΌ Π‘ΠΎΠ±ΡΠ°Π½ΠΈΠ΅ΠΌ, ΡΠΎΡΡΠΎΡΡΠΈΠΌ ΠΈΠ· Π‘ΠΎΠ²Π΅ΡΠ° Π€Π΅Π΄Π΅ΡΠ°ΡΠΈΠΈ ΠΈ ΠΠΎΡΡΠ΄Π°ΡΡΡΠ²Π΅Π½Π½ΠΎΠΉ ΠΡΠΌΡ, ΠΈΡΠΏΠΎΠ»Π½ΠΈΡΠ΅Π»ΡΠ½Π°Ρ Π²Π»Π°ΡΡΡ ΠΏΡΠ΅Π΄ΡΡΠ°Π²Π»Π΅Π½Π° ΠΏΡΠ΅Π·ΠΈΠ΄Π΅Π½ΡΠΎΠΌ ΠΈ ΡΠΎΠ²Π΅ΡΠΎΠΌ ΠΌΠΈΠ½ΠΈΡΡΡΠΎΠ², ΡΡΠ΄Π΅Π±Π½Π°Ρ Π²Π»Π°ΡΡΡ ΡΠΎΡΡΠΎΠΈΡ ΠΈΠ· ΠΠΎΠ½ΡΡΠΈΡΡΡΠΈΠΎΠ½Π½ΠΎΠ³ΠΎ ΡΡΠ΄Π°, ΠΠ΅ΡΡ ΠΎΠ²Π½ΠΎΠ³ΠΎ ΡΡΠ΄Π° ΠΈ Π΄ΡΡΠ³ΠΈΡ ΡΡΠ΄ΠΎΠ².
11. Π ΠΊΡΠ»ΡΡΡΡΠ΅ Π ΠΎΡΡΠΈΠΈ ΠΎΡΠ΅Π½Ρ ΠΌΠ½ΠΎΠ³ΠΎ ΠΈΠ·Π²Π΅ΡΡΠ½ΡΡ ΠΈΠΌΠ΅Π½, ΠΏΠΎΡΠΊΠΎΠ»ΡΠΊΡ Π ΠΎΡΡΠΈΡ Π²Π½Π΅ΡΠ»Π° Π±ΠΎΠ»ΡΡΠΎΠΉ Π²ΠΊΠ»Π°Π΄ Π² ΠΌΠΈΡΠΎΠ²ΡΡ ΠΈΠ½ΡΠ΅Π»Π»Π΅ΠΊΡΡΠ°Π»ΡΠ½ΡΡ ΠΈ Ρ ΡΠ΄ΠΎΠΆΠ΅ΡΡΠ²Π΅Π½Π½ΡΡ ΡΠΎΠΊΡΠΎΠ²ΠΈΡΠ½ΠΈΡΡ.
1. The geographical position and climate are believed to influence the country’s economy, lifestyles and the national character.
2. Russia’s vast territory is washed by three oceans and twelve seas and borders on many countries.
3. The land varies greatly from forest to deserts, from high mountains to deep valleys and has a lot of mountain ranges including the Caucasus with Europe’s highest point Mount Elbrus, the Ural Mountains, the Altai and so on.
4. Russia has a lot of great rivers and lakes including Baikal, the deepest and the purest fresh-water lake in the world,
5. After the collapse of the Soviet Union Russia has been going through a transitional period from the centrally planned socialist economy to a market economy.
6. The greater part of Russia’s industries have already been privatized, and agriculture is still undergoing privatization.
7. The crisis and depreciation of the rouble resulted in sharp deterioration in living standards for most of the population, Russia was facing recession.
8. Though Russia is still dependent on export of oil, gas and timber and its industrial and farming sectors are still weak, the rate of economic growth is very high.
9. Russia is a parliamentary republic with President, directly elected for a four-year term, as Head of State and head of the executive branch of the government.
10. The legislative branch of the government is represented by the Federal Assembly consisting of the Federation Council and the State Duma; the executive branch is represented by President and the Cabinet of Ministers, the judicial branch consists of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and other courts.
11. Russian culture abounds in famous names, as Russia has contributed greatly to the world’s intellectual and artistic treasure-houses.
ΠΠ· ΠΏΠΎΡΠΎΠ±ΠΈΡ “ΠΠΠ. ΠΠ½Π³Π»ΠΈΠΉΡΠΊΠΈΠΉ ΡΠ·ΡΠΊ. Π£ΡΡΠ½ΡΠ΅ ΡΠ΅ΠΌΡ” ΠΠ°Π½ΠΈΠ½Π° Π. Π. (2010, 272Ρ.) – Part one. English examination topics. Forms 9/11.