Π’ΠΎΠΏΠΈΠΊ Π‘Π¨Π (6) ΠΏΡΠΎΠ΄ΠΎΠ»ΠΆΠ°Π΅Ρ ΡΠ°ΡΡΠΊΠ°Π· ΠΎΠ± ΠΎΠ΄Π½ΠΎΠΉ ΠΈΠ· Π²Π΅Π΄ΡΡΠΈΡ ΡΡΡΠ°Π½ Π² ΠΌΠΈΡΠ΅. ΠΠ· ΡΠΎΠΏΠΈΠΊΠ° Π²Ρ ΡΠ·Π½Π°Π΅ΡΠ΅ ΠΎ Π³Π΅ΠΎΠ³ΡΠ°ΡΠΈΡΠ΅ΡΠΊΠΎΠΌ ΠΏΠΎΠ»ΠΎΠΆΠ΅Π½ΠΈΠΈ ΡΡΡΠ°Π½Ρ, Π΅Π΅ ΠΏΠ»ΠΎΡΠ°Π΄ΠΈ, ΠΎΠ± ΠΎΠ±ΡΠΈΡ Π³ΡΠ°Π½ΠΈΡΠ°Ρ Ρ Π΄ΡΡΠ³ΠΈΠΌΠΈ ΡΡΡΠ°Π½Π°ΠΌΠΈ ΠΈ ΠΎ Π²ΠΎΠ΄Π°Ρ , ΠΎΠΌΡΠ²Π°ΡΡΠΈΡ Π±Π΅ΡΠ΅Π³Π° ΠΠΌΠ΅ΡΠΈΠΊΠΈ. Π ΡΠΎΠΏΠΈΠΊΠ΅ ΡΠΏΠΎΠΌΡΠ½ΡΡΡ ΡΠ²Π΅Π΄Π΅Π½ΠΈΡ ΠΎ Π·Π°ΡΠΎΠΆΠ΄Π΅Π½ΠΈΠΈ Π½ΠΎΠ²ΠΎΠΉ ΡΡΡΠ°Π½Ρ, ΠΎ ΡΠ°ΠΌΠΎΠΌ Π½Π°ΡΠ°Π»Π΅ ΠΎΡΠ²ΠΎΠ΅Π½ΠΈΡ Π΅Π²ΡΠΎΠΏΠ΅ΠΉΡΠ°ΠΌΠΈ Π½Π΅Π·Π½Π°ΠΊΠΎΠΌΠΎΠ³ΠΎ ΠΈΠΌ ΠΊΠΎΠ½ΡΠΈΠ½Π΅Π½ΡΠ° ΠΈ ΡΠΎΠΌ, ΠΊΠ°ΠΊΠΈΠ΅ ΡΡΠ°ΡΡ Π±ΡΠ»ΠΈ ΠΏΡΠΈΡΠΎΠ΅Π΄ΠΈΠ½Π΅Π½Ρ ΠΊ ΠΏΠ΅ΡΠ²ΠΎΠ½Π°ΡΠ°Π»ΡΠ½ΡΠΌ 13-ΡΠΈ ΡΡΠ°ΡΠ°ΠΌ Π½ΠΎΠ²ΠΎΠ³ΠΎ Π³ΠΎΡΡΠ΄Π°ΡΡΡΠ²Π°. ΠΠ½ΡΠ΅ΡΠ΅ΡΠ΅Π½ ΡΠ°ΡΡΠΊΠ°Π· ΠΎ ΠΊΠ»ΠΈΠΌΠ°ΡΠΈΡΠ΅ΡΠΊΠΈΡ Π·ΠΎΠ½Π°Ρ ΠΈ ΠΎ ΡΠ΅Π»ΡΠ΅ΡΠ΅ ΡΡΡΠ°Π½Ρ, ΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΡΠ°Ρ Π΄Π΅Π»ΠΈΡΡΡ Π½Π° 3 ΡΠ°ΡΡΠΈ Π² Π·Π°Π²ΠΈΡΠΈΠΌΠΎΡΡΠΈ ΠΎΡ Π½Π΅Π³ΠΎ. ΠΡΠΈΠ²Π΅Π΄Π΅Π½Ρ Π΄Π°Π½Π½ΡΠ΅ ΠΎ Π³Π»Π°Π²Π½ΡΡ ΠΎΠ·Π΅ΡΠ°Ρ , ΡΠ΅ΠΊΠ°Ρ ΠΈ Π²ΠΎΠ΄ΠΎΠΏΠ°Π΄Π°Ρ Π‘ΠΎΠ΅Π΄ΠΈΠ½Π΅Π½Π½ΡΡ Π¨ΡΠ°ΡΠΎΠ² ΠΠΌΠ΅ΡΠΈΠΊΠΈ. ΠΠ· ΡΡΠΎΠ³ΠΎ ΡΠΎΠΏΠΈΠΊΠ° Π²Ρ ΡΠ·Π½Π°Π΅ΡΠ΅ ΠΎ ΡΠ°ΠΌΡΡ ΠΊΡΡΠΏΠ½ΡΡ ΠΈ Π·Π½Π°ΠΌΠ΅Π½ΠΈΡΡΡ Π³ΠΎΡΠΎΠ΄Π°Ρ Π‘Π¨Π: ΠΠ°ΡΠΈΠ½Π³ΡΠΎΠ½Π΅, ΠΡΡ-ΠΠΎΡΠΊΠ΅, Π§ΠΈΠΊΠ°Π³ΠΎ ΠΈ Π‘Π°Π½-Π€ΡΠ°Π½ΡΠΈΡΠΊΠΎ. Π Π°ΡΠΏΠΎΠ»Π°Π³Π°Ρ Π²ΡΠ΅Π³ΠΎ 5-Ρ ΠΏΡΠΎΡΠ΅Π½ΡΠ°ΠΌΠΈ ΠΎΡ Π½Π°ΡΠ΅Π»Π΅Π½ΠΈΡ Π·Π΅ΠΌΠ½ΠΎΠ³ΠΎ ΡΠ°ΡΠ° ΠΈ 6-Ρ ΠΏΡΠΎΡΠ΅Π½ΡΠ°ΠΌΠΈ Π΅Π³ΠΎ ΡΠ΅ΡΡΠΈΡΠΎΡΠΈΠΈ, ΠΠΌΠ΅ΡΠΈΠΊΠ° ΠΏΡΠΎΠΈΠ·Π²ΠΎΠ΄ΠΈΡ ΠΎΠΊΠΎΠ»ΠΎ 25% ΠΏΡΠΎΠΌΡΡΠ»Π΅Π½Π½ΠΎΠΉ ΠΏΡΠΎΠ΄ΡΠΊΡΠΈΠΈ ΠΈ ΡΠ΅Π»ΡΡΠΊΠΎΡ ΠΎΠ·ΡΠΉΡΡΠ²Π΅Π½Π½ΡΡ ΡΠΎΠ²Π°ΡΠΎΠ² Π² ΠΌΠΈΡΠ΅. Π‘ΡΡΠ°Π½Π° ΡΠ²Π»ΡΠ΅ΡΡΡ ΠΌΠΈΡΠΎΠ²ΡΠΌ Π»ΠΈΠ΄Π΅ΡΠΎΠΌ Π² ΡΠ°ΠΊΠΈΡ ΠΎΡΡΠ°ΡΠ»ΡΡ ΠΊΠ°ΠΊ Π±ΠΈΠΎΡ ΠΈΠΌΠΈΡ ΠΈ Π³Π΅Π½Π½Π°Ρ ΠΈΠ½ΠΆΠ΅Π½Π΅ΡΠΈΡ, Π°ΡΡΠΎΠΊΠΎΡΠΌΠΈΡΠ΅ΡΠΊΠΈΠ΅ ΠΈΡΡΠ»Π΅Π΄ΠΎΠ²Π°Π½ΠΈΡ ΠΈ ΡΠ°Π·ΡΠ°Π±ΠΎΡΠΊΠΈ, ΡΠ²ΡΠ·Ρ, ΠΊΠΎΠΌΠΏΡΡΡΠ΅ΡΠ½ΡΠ΅ ΠΈ ΠΈΠ½ΡΠΎΡΠΌΠ°ΡΠΈΠΎΠ½Π½ΡΠ΅ ΡΡΠ»ΡΠ³ΠΈ ΠΈ Π΄Ρ., Π° ΡΠ°ΠΊΠΆΠ΅ ΠΎΠ΄Π½ΠΎΠΉ ΠΈΠ· Π²Π΅Π΄ΡΡΠΈΡ ΠΌΠΈΡΠΎΠ²ΡΡ Π°Π³ΡΠ°ΡΠ½ΡΡ Π½Π°ΡΠΈΠΉ.
The USA is situated in the central part of the North American continent. The total area is over 9 million square kilometers. The Pacific Ocean washes its western coast and the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico in the south wash its eastern coast. It borders on Canada in the north and Mexico in the south.
The USA is a federal republic of fifty states and the District of Columbia. At first it consisted of only 13 states of the Atlantic coast of America. They were English colonies, but they fought against England and in 1776 became an independent state. They won the victory and a new nation was born. As the time went on, settlers from all the countries of Europe moved to the west until the nation reached the Pacific. One by one new states were added to the first 13. Much land was taken from the Indians. Some of the territories were bought from France in 1803, others were taken from Mexico. Alaska was bought from Russia in 1817. It became the 49th state of the USA, in 1859. The same year in 1859 the territory of Hawaii was to the USA as the 50th state.
The USA is divided onto three areas: Eastern area – a high land, Central area – a plane, and western area is mountainous and includes the Rocky mountains and the Sierra Nevada. The Northern part of the USA embraces the region of the five Great Lakes. (Lake Superior Huron, Michigan, Erie, Ontario) which are connected by natural channels, cut by rapids. The greatest of these rapids is the Niagara Falls. The water of the five lakes have their outlet into the Atlantic Ocean by the St-Lawrence River. The principal rivers of the USA are the Mississippi, the longest river in the world (17.800 kilometers) which flows into the Gulf of Mexico, the Colorado and the Columbia, which flows into the Pacific Ocean, and the Hudson river, which flows into the Atlantic Ocean.
The climate of the USA differs greatly from one part of the country to another. The coldest climate is in the north, when there is heavy snow in winter and the temperature may go down to 40 degrees below zero. The south has a subtropical climate, with temperatures as high as 49 degrees in summer. The climate along the pacific coast is much warmer than that in the Atlantic coast.
The capital of the USA is Washington, in the District of Columbia. The USA Congress has its seat in the Capitol, and the White House is the residence of the President. Washington, is a beautiful administrative city without much industry. It has many famous monuments: the Library of the Congress of the USA, the Washington Monument, the Abraham Lincoln and others. New York is the largest city and port. It is the financial and business center. It is famous of its skyscrapers. Chicago is one of the biggest industrial cities in the USA. San Francisco on the pacific coast, is a big port and ship building center.
The USA is one of the greatest industrial nations in the world. With only about 5 percent of the world’s population and about 6 percent of its land area, the U. S. is the world produces around 25 percent of the world’s industrial products, agricultural goods, and services. The USA is the world leader in many branches, for instance, biochemical and genetic engineering, aerospace research and development, communications, computer and information services, and similar high-technology fields. The USA is also the world’s leading agricultural nation, which not only feeds her own people but many other people in the world as well.
There are many reasons, which can explain why the USA has been able to become the leading industrial and agricultural resources. Another very important reason is America’s vitality, its so-called spirit of enterprise and initiative. The rapid progress of American industry and agriculture is also the result of the constant willingness to experiment and to find new solutions to old problems.
The USA is divided into regions that have different kinds of land and climate, different ways of living and working, and their own characteristics and problems. And each has its own groups of people whose origin and traditions make them different from any of the others. However, out of these differences the American people were able to create a political and social system in which all of these regions and groups were represented and which formed one nation out of many parts.