Π’ΠΎΠΏΠΈΠΊ Π‘Π°Π½ΠΊΡ-ΠΠ΅ΡΠ΅ΡΠ±ΡΡΠ³ ΡΠ°ΡΡΠΊΠ°Π·ΡΠ²Π°Π΅Ρ ΠΎΠ± ΠΎΠ΄Π½ΠΎΠΌ ΠΈΠ· ΠΊΡΠ°ΡΠΈΠ²Π΅ΠΉΡΠΈΡ Π³ΠΎΡΠΎΠ΄ΠΎΠ² Π ΠΎΡΡΠΈΠΈ ΠΈ Π²ΡΠ΅Π³ΠΎ ΠΌΠΈΡΠ°. ΠΠΎΡΠΎΠ΄ Π±ΡΠ» ΠΎΡΠ½ΠΎΠ²Π°Π½ ΠΠ΅ΡΡΠΎΠΌ ΠΠ΅ΡΠ²ΡΠΌ Π² 1703 Π³ΠΎΠ΄Ρ Π² ΡΡΡΡΠ΅ ΡΠ΅ΠΊΠΈ ΠΠ΅Π²Ρ. Π 1712 Π³ΠΎΠ΄Ρ Π‘Π°Π½ΠΊΡ-ΠΠ΅ΡΠ΅ΡΠ±ΡΡΠ³ ΡΡΠ°Π» ΡΡΠΎΠ»ΠΈΡΠ΅ΠΉ Π ΠΎΡΡΠΈΠΈ. Π 1914 Π³ΠΎΠ΄Ρ, Π² ΠΏΠ΅ΡΠΈΠΎΠ΄ ΠΠ΅ΡΠ²ΠΎΠΉ ΠΌΠΈΡΠΎΠ²ΠΎΠΉ Π²ΠΎΠΉΠ½Ρ, Π³ΠΎΡΠΎΠ΄ Π±ΡΠ» ΠΏΠ΅ΡΠ΅ΠΈΠΌΠ΅Π½ΠΎΠ²Π°Π½ Π² ΠΠ΅ΡΡΠΎΠ³ΡΠ°Π΄, Π° ΠΏΠΎΡΠ»Π΅ ΠΠΊΡΡΠ±ΡΡΡΠΊΠΎΠΉ ΡΠ΅Π²ΠΎΠ»ΡΡΠΈΠΈ Π±ΡΠ» Π½Π°Π·Π²Π°Π½ Π² ΡΠ΅ΡΡΡ Π. Π. ΠΠ΅Π½ΠΈΠ½Π° β ΠΠ΅Π½ΠΈΠ½Π³ΡΠ°Π΄ΠΎΠΌ. ΠΠΎ Π²ΡΠ΅ΠΌΡ ΠΠ΅Π»ΠΈΠΊΠΎΠΉ ΠΡΠ΅ΡΠ΅ΡΡΠ²Π΅Π½Π½ΠΎΠΉ Π²ΠΎΠΉΠ½Ρ Π³ΠΎΡΠΎΠ΄ ΠΏΠ΅ΡΠ΅ΠΆΠΈΠ» ΠΆΠ΅ΡΡΠΎΠΊΡΡ Π±Π»ΠΎΠΊΠ°Π΄Ρ Π½Π΅ΠΌΠ΅ΡΠΊΠΈΠΌΠΈ Π²ΠΎΠΉΡΠΊΠ°ΠΌΠΈ ΠΈ, Π·Π° ΠΏΠΎΠ»ΡΠΎΡΠ° Π³ΠΎΠ΄Π°, Π² Π³ΠΎΡΠΎΠ΄Π΅ ΡΠΌΠ΅ΡΠ»ΠΎ Π±ΠΎΠ»Π΅Π΅ 1,5 ΠΌΠΈΠ»Π»ΠΈΠΎΠ½Π° ΡΠ΅Π»ΠΎΠ²Π΅ΠΊ. Π‘Π΅ΠΉΡΠ°Ρ Π‘Π°Π½ΠΊΡ-ΠΠ΅ΡΠ΅ΡΠ±ΡΡΠ³ – Π²Π°ΠΆΠ½ΡΠΉ ΠΏΡΠΎΠΌΡΡΠ»Π΅Π½Π½ΡΠΉ, ΡΡΠ°Π½ΡΠΏΠΎΡΡΠ½ΡΠΉ, ΠΊΡΠ»ΡΡΡΡΠ½ΡΠΉ ΠΈ ΠΎΠ±ΡΠ°Π·ΠΎΠ²Π°ΡΠ΅Π»ΡΠ½ΡΠΉ ΡΠ΅Π½ΡΡ. ΠΠ°ΡΠ΅Π»Π΅Π½ΠΈΠ΅ Π³ΠΎΡΠΎΠ΄Π° ΡΠΎΡΡΠ°Π²Π»ΡΠ΅Ρ ΠΎΠΊΠΎΠ»ΠΎ 6 ΠΌΠΈΠ»Π»ΠΈΠΎΠ½ΠΎΠ² ΠΆΠΈΡΠ΅Π»Π΅ΠΉ. Π‘Π°Π½ΠΊΡ-ΠΠ΅ΡΠ΅ΡΠ±ΡΡΠ³, ΠΊΠ°ΠΊ ΠΈ Π² ΠΏΡΠΎΡΠ»ΠΎΠΌ, ΡΠ²Π»ΡΠ΅ΡΡΡ Π³ΠΎΡΠΎΠ΄ΠΎΠΌ ΠΌΠ½ΠΎΠ³ΠΈΡ Π½Π°ΡΠΈΠΉ ΠΈ ΡΠ΅Π»ΠΈΠ³ΠΈΠΉ. ΠΠ½ΠΎΠ³ΠΎΡΠΈΡΠ»Π΅Π½Π½Ρ Π΄ΠΎΡΡΠΎΠΏΡΠΈΠΌΠ΅ΡΠ°ΡΠ΅Π»ΡΠ½ΠΎΡΡΠΈ ΠΏΡΠΎΡΠ»Π°Π²Π»Π΅Π½Π½ΠΎΠ³ΠΎ Π³ΠΎΡΠΎΠ΄Π°: ΠΠ²ΠΎΡΡΠΎΠ²Π°Ρ ΠΏΠ»ΠΎΡΠ°Π΄Ρ, Π‘Π΅Π½Π°ΡΡΠΊΠ°Ρ ΠΏΠ»ΠΎΡΠ°Π΄Ρ, ΠΡΠ°Π°ΠΊΠΈΠ΅Π²ΡΠΊΠ°Ρ ΠΏΠ»ΠΎΡΠ°Π΄Ρ, Π’ΡΠΎΠΈΡΠΊΠ°Ρ ΠΏΠ»ΠΎΡΠ°Π΄Ρ ΠΈ ΠΏΠ»ΠΎΡΠ°Π΄Ρ ΠΡΠΊΡΡΡΡΠ², ΠΠ»Π΅ΠΊΡΠ°Π½Π΄ΡΠΎΠ²ΡΠΊΠ°Ρ ΠΊΠΎΠ»ΠΎΠ½Π½Π°, ΠΏΠ°ΠΌΡΡΠ½ΠΈΠΊ ΠΠ΅ΡΡΡ ΠΠ΅ΡΠ²ΠΎΠΌΡ, ΠΏΠ°ΠΌΡΡΠ½ΠΈΠΊ ΠΠΈΠΊΠΎΠ»Π°Ρ ΠΠ΅ΡΠ²ΠΎΠΌΡ, ΠΏΠ°ΠΌΡΡΠ½ΠΈΠΊ ΠΡΡΠΊΠΈΠ½Ρ, ΠΠ°ΡΡΠΎΠ²ΠΎ ΠΏΠΎΠ»Π΅ ΠΈ Ρ. Π΄. ΠΠ»Π°Π²Π½Π°Ρ ΡΠ»ΠΈΡΠ° β ΠΠ΅Π²ΡΠΊΠΈΠΉ ΠΏΡΠΎΡΠΏΠ΅ΠΊΡ, ΠΊΠΎΡΠΎΡΡΠΉ ΠΈΠ΄Π΅Ρ ΠΎΡ ΠΠ΄ΠΌΠΈΡΠ°Π»ΡΠ΅ΠΉΡΡΠ²Π° Π΄ΠΎ ΠΠ»Π΅ΠΊΡΠ°Π½Π΄ΡΠΎ-ΠΠ΅Π²ΡΠΊΠΎΠΉ ΠΠ°Π²ΡΡ. ΠΠ·Π²Π΅ΡΡΠ½ΡΠ΅ ΡΠ»ΠΈΡΡ: Π‘Π°Π΄ΠΎΠ²Π°Ρ ΡΠ»ΠΈΡΠ°, ΡΠ»ΠΈΡΠ° Π·ΠΎΠ΄ΡΠ΅Π³ΠΎ Π ΠΎΡΡΠΈ, ΠΠΎΡΠΊΠΎΠ²ΡΠΊΠΈΠΉ ΠΏΡΠΎΡΠΏΠ΅ΠΊΡ ΠΈ “Π»ΠΈΠ½ΠΈΠΈ” ΠΠ°ΡΠΈΠ»ΡΠ΅Π²ΡΠΊΠΎΠ³ΠΎ ΠΎΡΡΡΠΎΠ²Π°. ΠΠΎΡΠΎΠ΄ ΠΈΠ·Π²Π΅ΡΡΠ΅Π½ ΡΠ²ΠΎΠΈΠΌΠΈ ΠΌΠ½ΠΎΠ³ΠΎΡΠΈΡΠ»Π΅Π½Π½ΡΠΌΠΈ ΡΠ΅ΠΊΠ°ΠΌΠΈ, ΠΊΠ°Π½Π°Π»Π°ΠΌΠΈ, ΠΏΡΠ΅Π²ΠΎΡΡ ΠΎΠ΄Π½Π΅ΠΉΡΠΈΠΌΠΈ ΡΠ°Π·Π²ΠΎΠ΄Π½ΡΠΌΠΈ ΠΌΠΎΡΡΠ°ΠΌΠΈ, ΠΊΠΎΠ½Π½ΡΠΌΠΈ ΡΡΠ°ΡΡΡΠΌΠΈ Π½Π° ΠΠ½ΠΈΡΠΊΠΎΠ²ΠΎΠΌ ΠΌΠΎΡΡΡ ΠΈ, ΠΊΠΎΠ½Π΅ΡΠ½ΠΎ, Π΅Π΄ΠΈΠ½ΡΡΠ²Π΅Π½Π½ΡΠΌΠΈ Π² ΡΠ²ΠΎΠ΅ΠΌ ΡΠΎΠ΄Π΅, “Π±Π΅Π»ΡΠΌΠΈ Π½ΠΎΡΠ°ΠΌΠΈ”. ΠΠ½ΠΎΠ³ΠΎΡΠΈΡΠ»Π΅Π½Π½ΡΠ΅ ΡΡΡΠΈΡΡΡ Π΅ΠΆΠ΅Π³ΠΎΠ΄Π½ΠΎ ΠΏΠΎΡΠ΅ΡΠ°ΡΡ Π·Π½Π°ΠΌΠ΅Π½ΠΈΡΡΠ΅ ΠΌΡΠ·Π΅ΠΈ ΠΈ Π΄ΠΎΡΡΠΎΠΏΡΠΈΠΌΠ΅ΡΠ°ΡΠ΅Π»ΡΠ½ΠΎΡΡΠΈ: ΠΡΠ½ΡΡΠΊΠ°ΠΌΠ΅ΡΡ, Π ΡΡΡΠΊΠΈΠΉ ΠΌΡΠ·Π΅ΠΉ, ΠΠ΅ΡΡΠΎΠΏΠ°Π²Π»ΠΎΠ²ΡΠΊΡΡ ΠΊΡΠ΅ΠΏΠΎΡΡΡ, Π‘ΠΌΠΎΠ»ΡΠ½ΡΠΉ ΡΠΎΠ±ΠΎΡ, ΠΡΠ°Π°ΠΊΠΈΠ΅Π²ΡΠΊΠΈΠΉ ΡΠΎΠ±ΠΎΡ, ΠΠ°Π·Π°Π½ΡΠΊΠΈΠΉ ΡΠΎΠ±ΠΎΡ, Π₯ΡΠ°ΠΌ Π‘ΠΏΠ°ΡΠ° Π½Π° ΠΡΠΎΠ²ΠΈ, ΠΠ΄ΠΌΠΈΡΠ°Π»ΡΠ΅ΠΉΡΡΠ²ΠΎ, ΠΠΈΠΌΠ½ΠΈΠΉ Π΄Π²ΠΎΡΠ΅Ρ ΠΈ Ρ. Π΄. ΠΡΠ±ΠΈΡΠ΅Π»ΠΈ ΡΠ΅Π°ΡΡΠ°Π»ΡΠ½ΠΎΠ³ΠΎ ΠΈΡΠΊΡΡΡΡΠ²Π° Π²ΠΎΡΡ ΠΈΡΠ°ΡΡΡΡ ΡΠΏΠ΅ΠΊΡΠ°ΠΊΠ»ΡΠΌΠΈ ΠΠ°ΡΠΈΠΈΠ½ΡΠΊΠΎΠ³ΠΎ ΠΈ ΠΠ°Π»ΠΎΠ³ΠΎ ΠΎΠΏΠ΅ΡΠ½ΠΎΠ³ΠΎ ΡΠ΅Π°ΡΡΠΎΠ², ΠΠΠ’, ΠΠ»Π΅ΠΊΡΠ°Π½Π΄ΡΠΈΠ½ΡΠΊΠΎΠ³ΠΎ ΡΠ΅Π°ΡΡΠ°, ΡΠΈΠ»Π°ΡΠΌΠΎΠ½ΠΈΠΈ ΠΈΠΌΠ΅Π½ΠΈ Π¨ΠΎΡΡΠ°ΠΊΠΎΠ²ΠΈΡΠ° ΠΈ Π΄Ρ.
Saint Petersburg is the second largest city in Russia and one of the most beautiful cities in the world. It was founded in 1703 by Peter the Great as the window to Europe. Thousands of workmen were brought from all parts of Russia to build a new city on the swampy land at the mouth of the Neva River. Peter the Great was in a hurry. The work was fast and hard, and workmen dropped dead by hundreds. But the work went on.
In 1712 Saint Petersburg, a city of great beauty, with palaces, cathedrals, churches, government buildings became the capital. Under later rulers the new capital of the Russian Empire grew rapidly in wealth and beauty. Architects were brought from Western Europe to lay out the city in harmonious squares. Buildings were constructed in gray and rose-colored granite. The Hermitage and the Winter Palace, the homes of the Russian czars, were equal to any in Europe.
When the First World War began in 1914, the German-sounding name Saint Petersburg was changed to Petrograd. After the October Revolution the city was renamed after Vladimir Lenin.
During the Great Patriotic War the city suffered a great deal. The German armies laid siege to it in 1941, and for the next year and a half it was cut off from the rest of the country. Daily shelling and air raids destroyed parts of the city. Thousands of people were killed. Rebuilding took years.
Now Saint Petersburg is an important industrial, cultural, and educational center. It is also a large transport center. The first railroad line connected Saint Petersburg with Tsarskoye Selo. Then the famous Nicholas Railroad line from Saint Petersburg to Moscow was constructed. Now there are five railroad stations, two airports, a seaport, two bus terminals, a sea passenger terminal, and a river passenger terminal.
The population of the city grew fast. At the beginning of the 20th century it was about one million, by 1941 – it was about two million people, in the seventies – it was about four million, and it is near six million people now.
Diversity is one of the main features of Saint Petersburg. A lot of geographical names in the city are russified Finnish, and some are just translations from the Finnish language, for example: the Neva River, the Moika, the Karpovka, Okhta, Ulyanka, Ligovsky Prospect, Kalinkin Bridge, Zayachy Island and many others. Saint Petersburg now, as in the past, is the city of many nations and religions. Some of the streets still keep the names of ethnical communities, which were there, for instance:Italianskaya Street, Grechesky Prospect, Shvedsky Pereulok, Angliysky Prospect and Angliyskaya Embankment and others.
In the city there are a lot of churches and temples representing different religious groups: Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Lutheran Churches, Moslem Mosques, Synagogues and a Buddhist Temple as well.
Saint Petersburg is a wonderful city: at every turn there is something to catch your eye. There are spacious squares and circles and the streets are wide and straight. Palace Square, Senate Square, St. Isaac`s Square, Trinity Square and Arts Square – they all are historical places, shaped with famous buildings and have striking monuments. Alexander Column, the highest structure of this kind in the world, raises on Palace Square. Peter the Great Monument, better known as the Bronze Horseman, is on Senate Square. Nicholas 1 Monument, which is considered a masterpiece of engineering art, stands on St. Isaac`s Square. Pushkin Monument is in the center of Arts Square. The Field of Mars, with the area of twelve hectares, is the biggest square in Saint Petersburg. The main street of the city is Nevsky Prospect. It runs from the Admiralty to the Alexander Nevsky Monastery and lines famous buildings, luxurious hotels and fashionable stores. Sadovaya Street got its name from a lot of gardens once facing the street. Moskovsky Prospect is the longest street in the city and Architect Rossy Street is the shortest one. It was in Saint Petersburg that the tradition to number streets appeared. One still can find 5th Line or 27th Line on Vasilyevsky Island. Line is one side of the street.
The city is called Northern Venice because there are 65 rivers, ducts and canals there with artistically decorated bridges. Eight bridges across the Neva River open every night in summer giving together with the unset sun and magnificent buildings a picturesque view. At four ends of Anichkov Bridge over the Fontanka River along Nevsky Prospect are four sculptural groups comprising a world-famous composition “The Taming of a Horse”. The longest bridge is Alexander Nevsky Bridge across the Neva River. Sinii Bridge over the Moika River is the widest and completes the ensemble of St. Isaac`s Square.
There are lots of museums in the city. The Kunstkammer, the first Russian museum, the Peter and Paul Fortress, the Smolny Cathedral, the Russian Museum, St. Isaac’s Cathedral and Savior-on-the-Spilt-Blood, the Admiralty and the Winter Palace, and many others, attract thousands of tourists from all over the world. Saint Petersburg’s many museums house some of the world’s most famous art collections. The Hermitage, for example, contains the richest collection of pictures and pieces of applied art in the world.
There are lots of theaters to suit all tastes. One can hear an opera or watch a ballet in the Mariinsky Theater or the Malii Opera House. Theater goers can enjoy the dramatic art in the Tovstonogov Bolshoi Drama Theater or in the Alexandrinsky Theater. Chamber and symphony music can be enjoyed in the Shostakovich Philharmonic Society. And, finally, those who prefer pop singers and rock stars can visit their shows at concert halls or sport palaces like the SKA or the Ledovy Palace. Two circuses are at people’s disposal as well.
Saint Petersburg is also famous for its legendary white nights. Different festivals take place at this time. It has also been a tradition for graduates of all kinds to celebrate their graduation and make marry in the night city.
People all over the world know that far north in Russia is the city of Saint Petersburg. Many of those who once visited the city liked it and want to be there again.