What do old and young do in their leisure time? What do young people in different countries prefer to do?
Leisure is time spent in non-compulsory activities. Because leisure time is free from compulsory activities such as work, study, household duties, eating and sleeping, it is often referred to as ‘free time’. The ideas of leisure and leisure time are thought to have emerged in the late 19th century with the rise of mechanized industry, when the increase in productivity of labour resulted in the fact that workers had some time to spend on themselves.
They started doing sports and visiting theatres. Since then the idea of leisure time and relaxation has been popular with all the age groups and social classes. Old and young, rich and poor have been using their free time for rest and entertainment. The ways people spend their leisure time normally differ according to the age group: middle-aged and old people normally prefer more passive kind of
rest like watching TV or going to the theatre, or sometimes gardening, younger people enjoy more active pastimes like doing extreme sports, visiting night clubs and discos or travelling. However, the idea of active leisure like doing sports or travelling is gaining popularity with the older people, too.
So the basic leisure time activities of the young are travelling, doing sports including extreme sports, visiting discos and night clubs or more passive ways of recreation like listening to music or watching TV and videos, and surfing the Internet. Teenagers normally prefer to do extreme sports, that is sports featuring speed, height and danger as they lead to the so-called ‘adrenaline rush9 in participants. They wish to push themselves to the limits of their physical ability and fear, and push the boundaries of a particular sport, such as bungee jumping, climbing, white-water rafting, surfing, windsurfing and many others. Their tastes in music are normally different kinds of popular music associated with youth subcultures, such as hard rock, hip-hop or rap, punk rock, psychedelic rock and the like. In watching TV and videos or going to the cinema, they prefer film genres which are full of action, movement, colour, cinema effects and have a good soundtrack. They normally like action films, comedies, musicals, thrillers and cartoons.
Sometimes the ways young people spend their free time varies
according to the country, as they sometimes depend on national traditions. For example, in the USA young people normally like different types of popular culture which originated in their country like blues, different kinds of rock, country music and hip hop in music and pop art in fine arts. The sports they are doing are more often than not those which originated in America like baseball, auto-racing, basketball, and board-based recreational sports – surfboarding, skateboarding and snowboarding. American youngsters are fond of eating out and eat a lot of junk food like hambuigers and cheeseburgers and drink Coca-cola or Pepsi. British youngsters are really fond of watching football matches and sorts of races such as horse-racing, boat-racing and even dog-racing, as well as playing football, rugby and golf and taking part in races. They are really fond of pets and often spend some time in the evening taking their dog for a walk. In going out for the evening, they still prefer pubs to restaurants, bars and cafes. In music, their tastes are nearly the same as those of their American peers. In Germany young people prefer drinking beer when meeting their friends and spending much time doing various sports. In Spain many youngsters, as well as older people, are fond of watching bullfighting. In France they like listening to French chanson.
What do you like doing in your free time?
As for me, I prefer to spend my free time doing three things: doing swimming, pursuing my hobby which is collecting rare books, or listening to music in which I prefer jazz and classical music. Doing sports (I have been doing swimming since I was 7) helps me keep fit and be always in high spirits, as well as build up stamina and get tempered. The first reason why I collect books is that I am really keen on reading: Books open to me a whole world of events and people. The second one is that collecting rare books is getting to know history better. Reading a book is getting information about the period it describes, feeling its atmosphere and getting to know historical figures of the period.
I enjoy listening to music, as music helps me relax and relieve stress. When I listen to music, classical, jazz, rap or any other type of music I enjoy, I forget about the troubles of everyday life; music provides an escape from everyday problems. Stress melts away as I am taken in by the beauty of the music. It can help me feel calm and deeply relaxed. Secondly, music affects my emotions. Each type of music sets distinct mood and changes mine. Whether I am feeling sad, frustrated or confused, I listen to merry or tender music, and my mood shifts. I can’t say I prefer to listen to some definite kind of music all the time. The choice of music I listen to depends on my state of mind and mood. I can tell you what kind of music I prefer to listen to when I feel depressed, and it is jazz. The first reason why I do it is that jazz music usually has a powerful rhythm, so it is a kind of music that fills you with energy and strength. Secondly, it provides a brilliant combination of instrumental tunes and voice, which creates unforgettable harmony. Jazz immediately carries me away from my troubles, fills me with hope and joy, even though its tunes are often sad. I enjoy listening to classical music, too, Firstly, I like it for the complexity of the musical harmony it offers. Modern popular music, such as pop or rock is much more primitive in melody. Secondly, the emotions classical music evokes are much stronger and deeper; they carry me away to the time when the piece of music I am listening to was composed.
A thing we do in our free time for recreation and pleasure is called a hobby. Hobbies are practiced for interest and enjoyment, rather than for money. What are hobbies for some people are professions for others: a game tester may enjoy cooking as a hobby, while a professional chef might enjoy playing computer games. Generally speaking, the person who does something for fun, not remuneration, is called an amateur (or hobbyist), as distinct from a professional. Engaging in a hobby can lead to acquiring substantial skill, knowledge, and experience. A lot of celestial bodies and events have been discovered by amateur astronomers. However, the aim of a hobby is pleasure and personal fulfillment.
While some hobbies strike many people as trivial or boring, hobbyists find something entertaining about them. In fact, anything can be a hobby, from collecting stamps and board games to doing extreme sports and making model airplanes.
Translate the following sentences into English.
1. Время, когда человек свободен от обязательной деятельности, такой как работа, домашние обязанности, образование, еда, и сон, называется свободным временем.
2. Понятие свободного времени появилось в XIX веке с развитием механизации в промышленности, когда рабочие смогли посвящать больше времени отдыху.
3. Идея отдыха популярна среди всех возрастных групп и классов общества.
4. Люди среднего возраста и пожилые люди обычно предпочитают более пассивные виды отдыха, более молодые люди получают удовольствие от более активных занятий, таких как занятия экстремальными видами спорта, путешествия, посещения диско и ночных клубов и некоторых более пассивных занятий, таких как просмотр видео или интернет.
5. Экстремальные виды спорта – это виды спорта, которые отличает скорость, высота и опасность, вызывающие так называемый “выброс адреналина” у участников, которые заставляют себя достичь пределов своих физических возможностей и страха.
6. Их вкусы в музыке – различные виды музыки, которые ассоциируются с молодежными субкультурами, такие как тяжелый рок, рэп, панк-рок, психоделический рок и тому подобное.
7. Они предпочитают жанры фильмов, которые полны действия и киноэффектов и у которых хорошее звуковое сопровождение, такие как фильмы-боевики, комедии, мюзиклы, триллеры и мультфильмы.
8. Молодежь США предпочитает блюз, рок, музыку кантри и хип-хоп, бейсбол, автогонки, баскетбол и виды спорта, основанные на применении доски, а также высококалорийную пищу с низкой питательной ценностью.
9. Британские молодые люди любят домашних животных, пабы и традиционные британские виды спорта; испанские молодые люди любят смотреть бой быков.
10. Я предпочитаю проводить свое свободное время, занимаясь своим хобби (собирание редких книг), слушая джаз или занимаясь плаванием, что помогает мне быть в хорошей форме и всегда в хорошем настроении, воспитывать выносливость и закаляться.
11. Музыка помогает мне расслабиться и снять стресс, который тает, когда меня захватывает музыка, она дает возможность уйти от повседневных проблем и создает определенное настроение.
12. У джаза мощный ритм, который наполняет энергией и силой, он представляет собой блестящее сочетание инструментальных мелодий и голоса, что создает незабываемую гармонию.
13. Я люблю классическую музыку за сложность музыкальной гармонии, которую она предлагает, и за те чувства, которые она вызывает.
14. Хобби занимаются скорее ради интереса, удовольствия и личного удовлетворения, чем из-за вознаграждения, хотя занятия хобби может привести к получению значительных навыков, знаний и опыта.
1. A time when a person is free from compulsory activities such as work, household duties, education, eating and sleeping is called free time or leisure time.
2. The notion of leisure time emerged in the 19th century with the rise of mechanised industry when workers could give more time to recreation and leisure.
3. The idea of relaxation is popular with all the age groups and social classes.
4. Middle-aged and old people normally prefer more passive kinds of rest, younger people enjoy more active pastimes like doing extreme sports, travelling, visiting discos and night clubs, and some more passive leisure time activities like watching videos or surfing the Internet.
5. Extreme sports are sports featuring speed, height and danger and leading to the so-called ‘adrenaline rush’ in participants who push themselves to the limits of their physical ability and fear.
6. Their tastes in music are different kinds of music associated with youth subcultures, such as hard rock, rap, punk rock, psychedelic rock and the like.
7. They prefer film genres which are full of action and cinema effects and have a good soundtrack, like action films, comedies, musicals, thrillers and cartoons.
8. The US youngsters prefer blues, rock, country music and hip hop, baseball, auto-racing, basketball and board-based sports, as well as junk food.
9. British youngsters are fond of pets, pubs and traditional British sports; Spanish young people like watching bullfighting.
10. I prefer to spend my free time pursuing my hobby – collecting rare books, listening to jazz and classical music or doing swimming which helps me keep fit, be always in high spirits, build up my stamina and get tempered.
11. Music helps me relax and relieve stress which melts away as I am taken in by the beauty of the music, it provides an escape from everyday problems and sets distinct mood.
12. Jazz has a powerful rhythm, which fills you with energy and strength, provides a brilliant combination of instrumental tunes and voice, which creates unforgettable harmony
13. I like classical music for the complexity of the musical harmony it offers and the emotions it evokes.
14. Hobbies are practised for interest and enjoyment and personal fulfilment, rather than for remuneration, though engaging in a hobby can lead to acquiring substantial skill, knowledge, and experience.
Из пособия “ЕГЭ. Английский язык. Устные темы” Занина Е. Л. (2010, 272с.) – Part one. English examination topics. Forms 9/11.